Skip to main content

Blood pressure regulation XI: overview and future research directions

Abstract

While the importance of regulating arterial blood pressure within a ‘normal’ range is widely appreciated, the definition of ‘normal’ and the means by which humans and other species regulate blood pressure under various conditions remain hotly debated. The effects of diverse physiological, pathological and environmental challenges on blood pressure and the mechanisms that attempt to maintain it at an optimal level are reviewed and critically analyzed in a series of articles published in this themed issue of the European Journal of Applied Physiology. We summarize here the major points made in these reviews, with emphasis on unifying concepts of regulatory mechanisms and future directions for research.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Abbreviations

MAP:

Mean arterial pressure

NTS:

Nucleus tractus solitarii

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

NO:

Nitric oxide

Ang II:

Angiotensin II

References

  1. Aslan M, Ryan TM, Adler B, Townes TM, Parks DA, Thompson JA, Tousson A, Gladwin MT, Patel RP, Tarpey MM, Batinic-Haberle I, White CR, Freeman BA (2001) Oxygen radical inhibition of nitric oxide-dependent vascular function in sickle cell disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:15215–15220

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Atkinson G, Batterham KK, Taylor CE, Jones H (2014) Blood pressure regulation VII: the “morning surge” in blood pressure: measurement issues and clinical significance. Eur J Appl Physiol

  3. Bristow JD, Brown EB, Cunningham DJC, Howson MG, Petersen ES, Pickering TG, Sleight P (1971) Effect of bicycling on the baroreflex regulation of pulse interval. Circ Res 28:582–592

    Google Scholar 

  4. Calbet JA, Jensen-Urstad M, van Hall G, Holmberg HC, Rosdahl H, Saltin B (2004) Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans. J Physiol 558:319–331

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Cannon WB (1929) Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol Rev 9:399–431

    Google Scholar 

  6. Chapleau MW (2012) Baroreceptor reflexes. In: Robertson D, Biaggioni I, Burnstock G, Low P, Paton J (eds) Primer on the autonomic nervous system. Academic Press, Loss Angeles, pp 161–165

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Eiken O, Mekjavic IB, Kolegard R (2014) Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading. Eur J Appl Physiol

  8. Fadel PJ, Raven PB (2012) Human investigations into the arterial and cardiopulmonary baroreflexes during exercise. Exp Physiol 97:39–50

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Fisher JP, Fadel PJ (2010) Therapeutic strategies for targeting excessive central sympathetic activation in human hypertension. Exp Physiol 95:572–580

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fisher JP, Young CN, Fadel PJ (2009) Central sympathetic overactivity: maladies and mechanisms. Auton Neurosci 148:5–15

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Grassi G, Seravalle G, Dell’Oro R, Facchini A, Ilardo V, Mancia G (2004) Sympathetic and baroreflex function in hypertensive or heart failure patients with ventricular arrhythmias. J Hypertens 22:1747–1753

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Halliwill JR, Sieck DC, Romero SA, Buck TM, Ely MR (2014) Blood pressure regulation X: what happens when the muscle pump is lost? Post-exercise hypotension and syncope. Eur J Appl Physiol

  13. Ichinose M, Maeda S, Narihiko K, Nishiyasu T (2014) Blood pressure regulation II: what happens when one system must serve two maters: oxygen delivery and pressure regulation? Eur J Appl Physiol

  14. Jiang H, Rummage JA, Stewart CA, Herriott MJ, Kolosova I, Kolosov M, Leu RW (1996) Evidence for endogenous C1q modulates TNF-alpha receptor synthesis and autocrine binding of TNF-alpha associated with lipid A activation of murine macrophages for nitric oxide production. Cell Immunol 170:34–40

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Joyner MJ, Limberg JK (2014) Blood pressure regulation #1: every adaptation is an integration? Eur J Appl Physiol

  16. Kenney WL, Stanhewicz AE, Bruning RS, Alexander LM (2014) Blood pressure regulation III: what happens when one system must serve two maters: temperature and pressure regulation? Eur J Appl Physiol

  17. Korner PI (2007) Essential hypertension and its causes: neural and non-neural mechanisms. Oxford University Press, Oxford

    Google Scholar 

  18. Leal AK, Murphy MN, Iwamoto GA, Mitchell JH, Smith SA (2012) A role for nitric oxide within the nucleus tractus solitarii in the development of muscle mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension. Exp Physiol 97:1292–1304

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Leal AK, Mitchell JH, Smith SA (2013) Treatment of muscle mechanoreflex dysfunction in hypertension: effects of l-arginine dialysis in the nucleus tractus solitarii. Exp Physiol

  20. Manolio TA, Burke GL, Savage PJ, Sidney S, Gardin JM, Oberman A (1994) Exercise blood pressure response and 5-year risk of elevated blood pressure in a cohort of young adults: the CARDIA study. Am J Hypertens 7:234–241

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Matthews CE, Pate RR, Jackson KL, Ward DS, Macera CA, Kohl HW, Blair SN (1998) Exaggerated blood pressure response to dynamic exercise and risk of future hypertension. J Clin Epidemiol 51:29–35

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Mekjavic IB, Eiken O (2006) Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans. J Appl Physiol 100:2065–2072

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Melcher A, Donald DE (1981) Maintained ability of carotid baroreflex to regulate arterial pressure during exercise. Am J Physiol 241:H838–H849

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Miyai N, Arita M, Miyashita K, Morioka I, Shiraishi T, Nishio I (2002) Blood pressure response to heart rate during exercise test and risk of future hypertension. Hypertension 39:761–766

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Monahan KD, Eskurza I, Seals DR (2004) Ascorbic acid increases cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity in healthy older men. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 286:H2113–H2117

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Nightingale AK, Blackman DJ, Field R, Glover NJ, Pegge N, Mumford C, Schmitt M, Ellis GR, Morris-Thurgood JA, Frenneaux MP (2003) Role of nitric oxide and oxidative stress in baroreceptor dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure. Clin Sci (Lond) 104:529–535

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Norsk P (2014) Blood pressure regulation IV: pressure regulation when the gravitational load is minimal (weightlessness). Eur J Appl Physiol

  28. Padilla J, Jenkins NT, Laughlin MH, Fadel PJ (2014) Blood pressure regulation VIII: resistance vessel tone and implications for a pro-atherogenic conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype. Eur J Appl Physiol

  29. Paton JF, Waki H (2009) Is neurogenic hypertension related to vascular inflammation of the brainstem? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33:89–94

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA (2004) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:533–553

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Rowell LB (1974) Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol Rev 54:75–159

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Taylor JA, Tan CO (2014) Blood pressure regulation VI: elevated sympathetic outflow with human ageing- hypertensive or homeostatic? Eur J Appl Physiol

  33. Tzeng Y-C, Ainslie PN (2014) Blood pressure regulation IX: cerebral autoregulation under blood pressure challenges. Eur J Appl Physiol

  34. Waki H, Gouraud SS, Maeda M, Paton JF (2008) Specific inflammatory condition in nucleus tractus solitarii of the SHR: novel insight for neurogenic hypertension? Auton Neurosci 142:25–31

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Waki H, Gouraud SS, Maeda M, Raizada MK, Paton JF (2011) Contributions of vascular inflammation in the brainstem for neurogenic hypertension. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 178:422–428

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Walgenbach SC, Donald DE, Melcher A (1981) Inhibition of carotid pressor response by left aortic depressor nerve in dogs. Am J Physiol 240:H555–H560

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Yamauchi M, Kimura H (2008) Oxidative stress in obstructive sleep apnea: putative pathways to the cardiovascular complications. Antioxid Redox Signal 10:755–768

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Zubcevic J, Waki H, Raizada MK, Paton JF (2011) Autonomic-immune-vascular interaction: an emerging concept for neurogenic hypertension. Hypertension 57:1026–1033

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Research performed in the Chapleau laboratory related to the topics discussed was supported by funding provided by the NIH (P01 HL14388) and the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (1 I01 BX001414) and in the Raven laboratory was supported by funding provided by the NIH (RO-1 grant #s HL045547 and R-21 Grant # HL106431).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter B. Raven.

Additional information

Communicated by Nigel A.S. Taylor.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Raven, P.B., Chapleau, M.W. Blood pressure regulation XI: overview and future research directions. Eur J Appl Physiol 114, 579–586 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-2823-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Arterial baroreflex resetting
  • Cardiac output
  • Hemodynamic responses
  • Hypertension
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Set-point theory
  • Operating point
  • Total peripheral resistance