European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 11, pp 2813–2828 | Cite as

Stretch and activation of the human biarticular hamstrings across a range of running speeds

  • Anthony G. Schache
  • Tim W. Dorn
  • Tim V. Wrigley
  • Nicholas A. T. Brown
  • Marcus G. Pandy
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The human biarticular hamstrings [semimembranosus (SM), semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris long head (BFLH)] have an important role in running. This study determined how hamstrings neuro-mechanical behaviour changed with faster running, and whether differences existed between SM, ST and BFLH.

Methods

Whole-body kinematics and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) activity were measured from seven participants running at four discrete speeds (range: 3.4 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 0.7 m/s). Kinematic data were combined with a three-dimensional musculoskeletal model to calculate muscle–tendon unit (MTU) stretch and velocity. Activation duration and magnitude were determined from EMG data.

Results

With faster running, MTU stretch and velocity patterns remained similar, but maxima and minima significantly increased. The hamstrings were activated from foot-strike until terminal stance or early swing, and then again from mid-swing until foot-strike. Activation duration was similar with faster running, whereas activation magnitude significantly increased. Hamstrings activation almost always ended before minimum MTU stretch, and it always started before maximum MTU stretch. Comparing the hamstrings, maximum MTU stretch was largest for BFLH and smallest for ST irrespective of running speed, while the opposite was true for peak-to-peak MTU stretch. Furthermore, peak MTU shortening velocity was largest for ST and smallest for BFLH at all running speeds. Finally, for the two fastest running speeds, the amount of MTU stretch that occurred during terminal swing after activation had started was less for BFLH compared to SM and ST.

Conclusion

Differences were evident in biarticular hamstrings neuro-mechanical behaviour during running. Such findings have implications for hamstrings function and injury.

Keywords

Eccentric contraction Biceps femoris long head Muscle strain-type injury Sprinting 

Abbreviations

BF

Biceps femoris

BFLH

Biceps femoris long head

BFSH

Biceps femoris short head

EMG

Electromyographic

LMTU

Muscle–tendon unit length

\( {L_0}^{\text{MTU}} \)

Anatomical reference muscle–tendon unit length

m

Metres

ms

Milliseconds

MTU

Muscle–tendon unit

PCSA

Physiological cross-sectional area

s

Seconds

SM

Semimembranosus

ST

Semitendinosus

t

Time

VMTU

Muscle–tendon unit velocity

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony G. Schache
    • 1
  • Tim W. Dorn
    • 1
  • Tim V. Wrigley
    • 2
  • Nicholas A. T. Brown
    • 3
  • Marcus G. Pandy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Health Exercise and Sports MedicineUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.Department of Biomechanics and Performance AnalysisAustralian Institute of SportBelconnenAustralia

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