Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 6, pp 1441–1447 | Cite as

How long does it take to achieve steady state for an accurate assessment of resting \( \dot{\text{V}}{\text{O}}_{2} \) in healthy men?

  • Felipe A. Cunha
  • Adrian W. Midgley
  • Walace Monteiro
  • Raul Freire
  • Tainah Lima
  • Paulo T. V. FarinattiEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

The time necessary to obtain a steady state for an accurate and reliable assessment of resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) remains unclear and was the purpose of this study. Thirty healthy men, aged 17–28 years, visited the laboratory twice for the assessment of resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \), which was assessed as follows: (a) 24 h abstention from physical exercise, alcohol, soft drinks and caffeine, (b) fasting for at least 8 h, (c) an acclimation period of 10 min, and (d) 60 min assessment in a supine position. Resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) significantly changed during the 60 min (F = 37.4, P < 0.001), exhibiting a monoexponential decrease before reaching an asymptote. Post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that significant differences existed between consecutive means until the 30 min time point, after which there were no significant differences. The \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) response across trials exhibited high test–retest reliability, with within-subject coefficients of variations at each time point ranging from 2.8 to 7.0 % and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.90 to 0.99. The reliability was higher from the 25 min time point onwards. Based on these findings, the following recommendations are made to promote accurate assessment of resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \): (a) initiate the resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) measurement with 10 min of acclimation to the assessment apparatus, (b) determine resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) for a minimum of 30 min, until an apparent \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) steady state has been achieved; and (c) determine resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \) for a further 5 min, with the average of this last 5 min of data being regarding as the resting \( \dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2} \).

Keywords

Resting metabolic rate Reliability Metabolic equivalent Indirect calorimetry Energy expenditure Exercise prescription 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was partially supported by the Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for the Research Support in Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, process E-26/102.545/2010) and by the Brazilian Council for the Research Development (CNPq, process 305729/2006-3).

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest that is directly relevant to the content of this paper.

References

  1. ACSM (2009) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  2. Berke EM, Gardner AW, Goran MI, Poehlman ET (1992) Resting metabolic rate and the influence of the pretesting environment. Am J Clin Nutr 55:626–629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bullough RC, Melby CL (1993) Effect of inpatient versus outpatient measurement protocol on resting metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio. Ann Nutr Metab 37:24–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byard AD, Dengel DR (2002) Validity of a portable metabolic measurement system. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:S149Google Scholar
  5. Byrne NM, Hills AP, Hunter GR, Weinsier RL, Schutz Y (2005) Metabolic equivalent: one size does not fit all. J Appl Physiol 99:1112–1119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Colberg SR, Swain DP, Vinik AI (2003) Use of heart rate reserve and rating of perceived exertion to prescribe exercise intensity in diabetic autonomic neuropathy. Diabetes Care 26:986–990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Compher C, Frankenfield D, Keim N, Roth-Yousey L (2006) Best practice methods to apply to measurement of resting metabolic rate in adults: a systematic review. J Am Diet Assoc 106:881–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cunha FA, Midgley AW, Monteiro WD, Farinatti PT (2010) Influence of cardiopulmonary exercise testing protocol and resting VO(2) assessment on %HR(max), %HRR, %VO(2max) and %VO(2)R relationships. Int J Sports Med 31:319–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cunha FA, Midgley AW, Monteiro WD, Campos FK, Farinatti PT (2011) The relationship between oxygen uptake reserve and heart rate reserve is affected by intensity and duration during aerobic exercise at constant work rate. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 36:839–847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. da Cunha FA, Farinatti Pde T, Midgley AW (2011) Methodological and practical application issues in exercise prescription using the heart rate reserve and oxygen uptake reserve methods. J Sci Med Sport 14:46–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Davenport MH, Charlesworth S, Vanderspank D, Sopper MM, Mottola MF (2008) Development and validation of exercise target heart rate zones for overweight and obese pregnant women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33:984–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, Nieman DC, Swain DP (2011) Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1334–1359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gunn SM, Brooks AG, Withers RT, Gore CJ, Owen N, Booth ML, Bauman AE (2002) Determining energy expenditure during some household and garden tasks. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:895–902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gunn SM, van der Ploeg GE, Withers RT, Gore CJ, Owen N, Bauman AE, Cormack J (2004) Measurement and prediction of energy expenditure in males during household and garden tasks. Eur J Appl Physiol 91:61–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Isbell TR, Klesges RC, Meyers AW, Klesges LM (1991) Measurement reliability and reactivity using repeated measurements of resting energy expenditure with a face mask, mouthpiece, and ventilated canopy. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 15:165–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jette M, Sidney K, Blumchen G (1990) Metabolic equivalents (METS) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. Clin Cardiol 13:555–565PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. McClave SA, Spain DA, Skolnick JL, Lowen CC, Kieber MJ, Wickerham PS, Vogt JR, Looney SW (2003) Achievement of steady state optimizes results when performing indirect calorimetry. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 27:16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mezzani A, Corra U, Giordano A, Cafagna M, Adriano EP, Giannuzzi P (2007) Unreliability of the %VO2 reserve versus %heart rate reserve relationship for aerobic effort relative intensity assessment in chronic heart failure patients on or off beta-blocking therapy. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 14:92–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Olson TP, Tracy JE, Dengel DR (2003) Validity of a low-flow pneumotach and portable metabolic system for measurement of basal metabolic rate. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:S143Google Scholar
  20. Rotstein A, Meckel Y (2000) Estimation of %VO2 reserve from heart rate during arm exercise and running. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:545–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Savage PD, Toth MJ, Ades PA (2007) A re-examination of the metabolic equivalent concept in individuals with coronary heart disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 27:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Shrout PE, Fleiss JL (1979) Intraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull 86:420–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Swain DP (2000) Energy cost calculations for exercise prescription: an update. Sports Med 30:17–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Swain DP, Leutholtz BC (1997) Heart rate reserve is equivalent to %VO2 reserve, not to %VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Swain DP, Leutholtz BC, King ME, Haas LA, Branch JD (1998) Relationship between %heart rate reserve and %VO2 reserve in treadmill exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:318–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Turley KR, McBride PJ, Wilmore JH (1993) Resting metabolic rate measured after subjects spent the night at home vs at a clinic. Am J Clin Nutr 58:141–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Wahrlich V, Anjos LA, Going SB, Lohman TG (2006) Validation of the VO2000 calorimeter for measuring resting metabolic rate. Clin Nutr 25:687–692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Weir JB (1949) New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol 109:1–9PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felipe A. Cunha
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adrian W. Midgley
    • 3
  • Walace Monteiro
    • 2
    • 4
  • Raul Freire
    • 2
    • 4
  • Tainah Lima
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paulo T. V. Farinatti
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.Medical Sciences Graduate Program, Faculty of Medical SciencesRio de Janeiro State UniversityRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Physical Activity and Health Promotion (LABSAU), Physical Education and Sports InstituteRio de Janeiro State UniversityRio de JaneiroBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Sport and Physical ActivityEdge Hill UniversityOrmskirkUK
  4. 4.Physical Activity Sciences Graduate ProgramSalgado de Oliveira UniversityNiteroiBrazil

Personalised recommendations