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Increase in IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9, but not sICAM-1, concentrations depends on exercise duration

Abstract

It has been suggested that exercise intensity is of importance in the regulation of increase in pro-inflammatory molecules, but there is still a debate about the effect of duration on these molecules. Therefore, the effect of exercise duration on the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), soluble form of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was studied in 22 half-marathon (HM) and 18 marathon (M) male amateur runners who completed their exercise task in 1.8 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard deviation) and 3.6 ± 0.4 h, respectively (thus, average speed was 11.7 ± 1.5 and 11.9 ± 1.8 km h−1, respectively). Blood was sampled 2 days before, 15 min after, and 28 h after the race. IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9 always increased immediately after exercise, but the increase was larger (P < 0.05) in M versus HM (∆IL-6: 31 ± 24 vs. 5 ± 4 pg ml−1; ∆TNF-α: 1.7 ± 1.9 vs. 0.5 ± 0.8 pg ml−1; MMP-9: 288 ± 216 vs. 145 ± 128 ng ml−1, respectively). sICAM-1 also increased with exercise, but similarly in M and HM (20 ± 40 vs. 23 ± 32 ng ml−1, respectively). Only sICAM-1 remained elevated 28 h post-exercise in both HM and M, while IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9 returned to pre-exercise levels. Competitive HM and M races induce significant increases in IL-6, TNF-α, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 concentrations. As HM and M runners performed the competition with similar absolute intensity, the difference in response between the groups suggests that exercise duration is of importance in the regulation of IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9, but not sICAM-1 concentrations in response to prolonged running.

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Acknowledgments

This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the project “Support for Doctoral Studies at University of Latvia”. This study was supported in part by Grant No. 2010.10-4/VPP-4/5 of the framework of the Latvian National Program.

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Correspondence to Dace Reihmane.

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Communicated by Fabio Fischetti.

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Reihmane, D., Jurka, A., Tretjakovs, P. et al. Increase in IL-6, TNF-α, and MMP-9, but not sICAM-1, concentrations depends on exercise duration. Eur J Appl Physiol 113, 851–858 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2491-9

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-012-2491-9

Keywords

  • Exercise
  • Cytokines
  • sICAM-1
  • MMP-9
  • Inflammation