European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 1, pp 1–11 | Cite as

The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration

  • Ramona Ritzmann
  • Albert Gollhofer
  • Andreas Kramer
Original Article

Abstract

This study aimed to assess the influence of different whole body vibration (WBV) determinants on the electromyographic (EMG) activity during WBV in order to identify those training conditions that cause highest neuromuscular responses and therefore provide optimal training conditions. In a randomized cross-over study, the EMG activity of six leg muscles was analyzed in 18 subjects with respect to the following determinants: (1) vibration type (side-alternating vibration (SV) vs. synchronous vibration (SyV), (2) frequency (5–10–15–20–25–30 Hz), (3) knee flexion angle (10°–30°–60°), (4) stance condition (forefoot vs. normal stance) and (5) load variation (no extra load vs. additional load equal to one-third of the body weight). The results are: (1) neuromuscular activity during SV was enhanced compared to SyV (P < 0.05); (2) a progressive increase in frequency caused a progressive increase in EMG activity (P < 0.05); (3) the EMG activity was highest for the knee extensors when the knee joint was 60° flexed (P < 0.05); (4) for the plantar flexors in the forefoot stance condition (P < 0.05); and (5) additional load caused an increase in neuromuscular activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, large variations of the EMG activation could be observed across conditions. However, with an appropriate adjustment of specific WBV determinants, high EMG activations and therefore high activation intensities could be achieved in the selected muscles. The combination of high vibration frequencies with additional load on an SV platform led to highest EMG activities. Regarding the body position, a knee flexion of 60° and forefoot stance appear to be beneficial for the knee extensors and the plantar flexors, respectively.

Keywords

Electromyography Parameters Vibration Training Exercise 

References

  1. Aagaard P (2003) Training-induced changes in neural function. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abercromby AFJ, Amonette WE, Layne CS, McFarlin BK, Hinman MR, Paloski WH (2007a) Variation in neuromuscular responses during acute whole-body vibration exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1642–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abercromby AFJ, Amonette WE, Layne CS, McFarlin BK, Hinman MR, Paloski WH (2007b) Vibration exposure and biodynamic responses during whole-body vibration training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1794–1800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bedingham W, Tatton WG (1984) Dependence of EMG responses evoked by imposed wrist displacements on pre-existing activity in the stretched muscles. Can J Neurol Sci 11:272–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Berschin G, Sommer H-M (2004) Vibrationstraining und Gelenkstabilität: EMG-Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Vibrationsfrequenz und Körperhaltung auf Muskelaktivierung und—koaktivierung. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin 55:152–156Google Scholar
  6. Bressel E, Smith G, Branscomb J (2010) Transmission of whole body vibration in children while standing. Clin Biomech 25:181–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cardinale M, Lim J (2003) Electromyography activity of vastus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies. J Strength Cond Res 17:621–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cochrane DJ (2011) Vibration exercise: the potential benefits. Int J Sports Med 32:75–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cochrane DJ, Sartor F, Winwood K, Stannard SR, Narici MV, Rittweger J (2008) A comparison of the physiologic effects of acute whole-body vibration exercise in young and older people. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89:815–821PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochrane DJ, Loram ID, Stannard SR, Rittweger J (2009) Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration. Muscle Nerve 40:420–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Farina D, Merletti R, Enoka RM (2004) The extraction of neural strategies from the surface EMG. J Appl Physiol 96:1486–1495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freund HJ, Büdingen HJ, Dietz V (1975) Activity of single motor units from human forearm muscles during voluntary isometric contractions. J Neurophysiol 38:933–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Garatachea N, Jiménez A, Bresciani G, Mariño NA, González-Gallego J, de Paz JA (2007) The effects of movement velocity during squatting on energy expenditure and substrate utilization in whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 21:594–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hazell TJ, Jakobi JM, Kenno KA (2007) The effects of whole-body vibration on upper- and lower-body EMG during static and dynamic contractions. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32:1156–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hazell TJ, Kenno KA, Jakobi JM (2010) Evaluation of muscle activity for loaded and unloaded dynamic squats during vertical whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 24:1860–1865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hogrel J-Y (2003) Use of surface EMG for studying motor unit recruitment during isometric linear force ramp. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 13:417–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jacobs PL, Burns P (2009) Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 23:51–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Keenan KG, Farina D, Maluf KS, Merletti R, Enoka RM (2005) Influence of amplitude cancellation on the simulated surface electromyogram. J Appl Physiol 98:120–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kellis E, Katis A (2008) Reliability of EMG power-spectrum and amplitude of the semitendinosus and biceps femoris muscles during ramp isometric contractions. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 18:351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kooistra RD, Blaauboer ME, Born JR, de Ruiter CJ, de Haan A (2006) Knee extensor muscle oxygen consumption in relation to muscle activation. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:535–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marín PJ, Bunker D, Rhea MR, Ayllón FN (2009) Neuromuscular activity during whole-body vibration of different amplitudes and footwear conditions: implications for prescription of vibratory stimulation. J Strength Cond Res 23:2311–2316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Merriman HL, Brahler CJ, Jackson K (2011) Systematically controlling for the influence of age, sex, hertz and time post-whole-body vibration exposure on four measures of physical performance in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized cross-over study. Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  23. Milner-Brown HS, Stein RB, Yemm R (1973a) Changes in firing rate of human motor units during linearly changing voluntary contractions. J Physiol 230:371–390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Milner-Brown HS, Stein RB, Yemm R (1973b) The orderly recruitment of human motor units during voluntary isometric contractions. J Physiol 230:359–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moritani T (2002) Motor unit and motoneurone excitability during explosive movement. In: Komi P (ed) Strength and power in sport, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 27–49Google Scholar
  26. Moritani T, Muro M (1987) Motor unit activity and surface electromyogram power spectrum during increasing force of contraction. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 56:260–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nolan L, Kerrigan DC (2003) Keep on your toes: gait initiation from toe-standing. J Biomech 36:393–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pel JJM, Bagheri J, van Dam LM, van den Berg-Emons HJG, Horemans HLD, Stam HJ, van der Steen J (2009) Platform accelerations of three different whole-body vibration devices and the transmission of vertical vibrations to the lower limbs. Med Eng Phys 31:937–944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pincivero DM, Salfetnikov Y, Campy RM, Coelho AJ (2004) Angle- and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque. J Biomech 37:1689–1697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pollock RD, Woledge RC, Mills KR, Martin FC, Di Newham J (2010) Muscle activity and acceleration during whole body vibration: effect of frequency and amplitude. Clin Biomech 25:840–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rauch F, Sievanen H, Boonen S, Cardinale M, Degens H, Felsenberg D, Roth J, Schoenau E, Verschueren S, Rittweger J (2010) Reporting whole-body vibration intervention studies: recommendations of the International Society of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact 10:193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Riley ZA, Maerz AH, Litsey JC, Enoka RM (2008) Motor unit recruitment in human biceps brachii during sustained voluntary contractions. J Physiol 586:2183–2193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rittweger J (2010) Vibration as an exercise modality: how it may work, and what its potential might be. Eur J Appl Physiol 108:877–904PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rittweger J, Ehrig J, Just K, Mutschelknauss M, Kirsch KA, Felsenberg D (2003) Oxygen uptake in whole-body vibration exercise: influence of vibration frequency, amplitude, and external load. Int J Sports Med 23:428–432Google Scholar
  35. Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D (2001) Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement. Eur J Appl Physiol 86:169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ritzmann R, Kramer A, Gruber M, Gollhofer A, Taube W (2010) EMG activity during whole body vibration: motion artifacts or stretch reflexes? Eur J Appl Physiol 110:143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Roelants M, Delecluse C, Verschueren SM (2004) Whole-body-vibration training increases knee-extension strength and speed of movement in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 52:901–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sañudo B, Feria A, Carrasco L, Hoyo MD, Santos R, Gamboa H (2011) Gender differences in knee stability in response to whole body vibration. J Strength Cond Res [Epub ahead of print]Google Scholar
  39. Sasagawa S, Ushiyama J, Masani K, Kouzaki M, Kanehisa H (2009) Balance control under different passive contributions of the ankle extensors: quiet standing on inclined surfaces. Exp Brain Res 196:537–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stewart JA, Cochrane DJ, Morton RH (2009) Differential effects of whole body vibration durations on knee extensor strength. J Sci Med Sport 12:50–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievänen H, Järvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Järvinen TL, Järvinen M, Oja P, Vuori I (2002) Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1523–1528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wilcock IM, Whatman C, Harris N, Keogh JWL (2009) Vibration training: could it enhance the strength, power, or speed of athletes? J Strength Cond Res 23:593–603PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramona Ritzmann
    • 1
  • Albert Gollhofer
    • 1
  • Andreas Kramer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Sport and Sport ScienceUniversity of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Sports ScienceUniversity of KonstanzConstanceGermany

Personalised recommendations