Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to decrements in muscle performance, increases in intramuscular proteins and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Previous research demonstrated that one litre of milk-based protein–carbohydrate (CHO) consumed immediately following muscle damaging exercise can limit changes in markers of EIMD possibly due to attenuating protein degradation and/or increasing protein synthesis. If the attenuation of EIMD is derived from changes in protein metabolism then it can be hypothesised that consuming a smaller volume of CHO and protein will elicit similar effects. Three independent matched groups of 8 males consumed 500 mL of milk, 1,000 mL of milk or a placebo immediately following muscle damaging exercise. Passive and active DOMS, isokinetic muscle performance, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and interleukin-6 were assessed immediately before and 24, 48 and 72 h after EIMD. After 72 h 1,000 mL of milk had a likely benefit for limiting decrements in peak torque compared to the placebo. After 48 h, 1,000 mL of milk had a very likely benefit of limiting increases in CK in comparison to the placebo. There were no differences between consuming 500 or 1,000 mL of milk for changes in peak torque and CK. In conclusion, decrements in isokinetic muscle performance and increases in CK can be limited with the consumption of 500 mL of milk.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Andreu AL, Schwartz S (1995) Nutrition, lysosomal proteases, and protein breakdown. Nutrition 11:382–387
Batterham AM, Hopkins WG (2006) Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3:547–557
Baty JJ, Hwang H, Ding Z, Bernard JR, Wang B, Kwon B, Ivy JL (2007) The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 21:321–329
Betts JA, Toone RJ, Stokes KA, Thompson D (2009) Systemic indices of skeletal muscle damage and recovery of muscle function after exercise: effect of combined carbohydrate–protein ingestion. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 34:773–784
Biolo G, Williams BD, Declan Fleming RY, Wolfe RR (1999) Insulin action on muscle protein kinetics and amino acid transport during recovery after resistance exercise. Diabetes 48:949–957
Borsheim E, Tipton KD, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR (2002) Essential amino acids and muscle protein recovery from resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 283:E648–E657
Borsheim E, Aarsland A, Wolfe RR (2004) Effect of an amino acid, protein, and carbohydrate mixture on net muscle protein balance after resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr 14:249–265
Byrne C, Eston R (2002) The effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on isometric and dynamic knee extensor strength and vertical jump performance. J Sports Sci 20:417–425
Cockburn E, Hayes PR, French DN, Stevenson E, St. Clair Gibson A et al (2008) Acute milk-based protein–CHO supplementation attenuates exercise-induced muscle damage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33:775–7833
Cockburn E, Stevenson E, Hayes PR, Robson-Ansley P, Howatson G (2010) Effect of milk-based carbohydrate–protein supplement timing on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35:270–277
Frost RA, Lang CH, Gelato MC (1997) Transient exposure of human myoblasts to tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits serum and insulin-like growth factor I stimulated protein synthesis. Endocrinology 138:4153–4159
Gilson SF, Saunders MJ, Moran CW, Moore RW, Womack CJ, Todd MK (2010) Effects of chocolate milk consumption on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 18:19
Green MS, Corono BT, Doyle JA, Ingalls CP (2008) Carbohydrate-protein drinks do not enhance recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury. Int J Sport Nutr 18:1–18
Harrison AJ, Gaffney SD (2004) Effects of muscle damage on stretch-shortening cycle function and muscle stiffness control. J Strength Cond Res 18:771–776
Hopkins WG (2002) Probabilities of clinical or practical significance. Sportscience 6
Hopkins WG (2003) A spreadsheet for analysis of straightforward controlled trialsq. Sportscience 7
Hopkins WG (2006) Analysis of a pre-post controlled trial (Excel spreadsheet). newstatsorg/xParallelGroupsTrialxls
MacIntyre DL, Sorichter S, Mair J, Berg A, McKenzie DC (2001) Markers of inflammation and myofibrillar proteins following eccentric exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84:180–186
Miles M, Pearson SD, Andring JM, Kidd JR, Volpe SL (2007) Effect of carbohydrate intake during recovery from eccentric exercise on interleukin-6 and muscle-damage markers. Int J Sport Nutr 17:507–520
Miller SL, Tipton KD, Chinkes DL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR (2003) Independent and combined effects of amino acids and glucose after resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:449–455
Moore DR, Robinson MJ, Fry JL, Tang JE, Glover EI, Wilkinson SB, Prior T, Tarnapolsky MA, Phillips SM (2009) Ingested protein dose response of muscle and albumin protein synthesis after resistance exercise in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 89:161–168
Nevill A, Lane A (2007) Why self-report “Likert” scale data should not be log-transformed. J Sports Sci 25:1–2
Pyne DB (1994) Exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation: a review. Aust J Sci Med Sport 26:49–58
Rohde T, MacLean DA, Richter EA, Kiens B, Pederson BK (1997) Prolonged submaximal eccentric exercise is associated with increased levels of plasma IL-6. Am J Physiol 273:E85–E91
Rowlands DS, Rossler K, Thorp RM, Graham DF, Timmons BW, Stannard SR, Tarnapolsky MA (2008) Effect of dietary protein content during recovery from high-intensity cycling on subsequent performance and markers of stress, inflammation, and muscle damage in well-trained men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33:39–51
Saunders MJ, Kane MD, Todd MK (2004) Effects of a carbohydrate–protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1233–1238
Saunders MJ, Luden ND, Herrick JE (2007) Consumption of an oral carbohydrate–protein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents postexercise muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res 21:678–684
Seifert JG, Kipp RW, Amann M, Gazal O (2005) Muscle damage, fluid ingestion, and energy supplementation during recreational alpine skiing. Int J Sport Nutr 15:528–536
Semark A, Noakes TD, St. Clair Gibson A, Lambert MI et al (1999) The effect of a prophylactic dose of flurbiprofen on muscle soreness and sprinting performance in trained subjects. J Sports Sci 17:197–203
Sorichter S, Puschendorf B, Mair J (1999) Skeletal muscle injury induced by eccentric muscle action: muscle proteins as markers of muscle fiber injury. Exerc Immunol Rev 5:5–21
Sorichter S, Mair J, Koller A, Calzolari C, Huonker M, Pau B, Puschendorf B (2001) Release of muscle proteins after downhill running in male and female subjects. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11:28–32
Tang JE, Manolakos JJ, Kujbida GW, Lysecki PJ, Moore DR, Phillips SM (2007) Minimal whey protein with carbohydrate stimulates muscle protein synthesis following resistance exercise in trained young men. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 32:1132–1138
Twist C, Eston R (2005) The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:652–658
Valentine RJ, Saunders MJ, Kent Todd M, St. Laurent T (2008) Influence of carbohydrate–protein beverage on cycling endurance and indices of muscle disruption. Int J Sport Nutr 18:363–378
Volek JS (2004) Influence of nutrition on responses to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:689–696
White JP, Wilson JM, Austin KG, Greer BK, St. John N, Panton LB (2008) Effect of carbohydrate–protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5:5
Wojcik JR, Walberg-Ranking J, Smith LL, Gwazdauskas FC (2001) Comparison of a carbohydrate and milk-based beverages on muscle damage and glycogen following exercise. Int J Sport Nutr 11:406–419
The Dairy Council provided a small grant to cover consumable costs.
Communicated by Susan A. Ward.
About this article
Cite this article
Cockburn, E., Robson-Ansley, P., Hayes, P.R. et al. Effect of volume of milk consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol 112, 3187–3194 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2288-2
- Muscle damage
- Muscle performance