The ACTN3 genotype in soccer players in response to acute eccentric training
- 956 Downloads
Genetic factors can interfere with sporting performance. The identification of genetic predisposition of soccer players brings important information to trainers and coaches for individual training loads adjustment. Different responses to eccentric training could be observed by the genotype referred to as α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) in biomarkers of muscle damage, hormones and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to compare acute inflammatory responses, muscle damage and hormonal variations according to the eccentric training in soccer professional athletes with different genetic profiles of ACTN3 (XX, RX and RR). 37 soccer professional athletes (9 XX, 13 RX, 15 RR) were randomly divided into five stations associated to eccentric muscle contraction and plyometrics. Blood samples were taken from athletes pre-eccentric training, immediately after (post), 2- and 4-h post-eccentric training to determine hormone responses (cortisol and testosterone), muscle damage (CK and α-actin), and inflammatory responses (IL-6). After eccentric training, athletes XX presented higher levels for CK (4-h post), α-actin (post and 2-h post) and cortisol (post) compared to RR and RX athletes. However, RR and RX athletes presented higher levels of testosterone (post) and IL-6 (2 h post and 4 h post) compared to athletes XX. The main conclusion of this study is that professional soccer athletes homozygous to ACTN3XX gene are more susceptible to eccentric damage and present a higher catabolic state, demonstrated by metabolic, hormonal and immune responses post an eccentric training, in comparison to ACTN3RR and ACTN3RX groups.
KeywordsMuscle damage Soccer ACTN3 Eccentric
I thank the athletes involved in the study, the São Sebastião laboratory for receiving our team and especially to Elias Marcilene and Luciano Cappetinne for their competence and readiness. This work was financially supported by CNPQ 301074/2008-9. 475547/2007-1 CAPES/FAPEMIG APQ-5023-5.01-07/PRONEX/CRUZEIRO ESPORTE CLUBE.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare with regard to the present work.
- Chan S, Seto JT, Houweling PJ et al (2011) Properties of extensor digitorum longus muscle and skinned fibers from adult and aged male and female actn3 knockout mice. Muscle Nerve. doi: 10.1002/mus.21778
- Cordova A, Martin JF, Reyes E, Alvarez‐Mon M (2004) Protection against muscle damage in competitive sports players: the effect of the immunomodulator AM3. J Sports Sci 22:827–833Google Scholar
- Cormack SJ, Newton RU, McGuigan MR (2008) Neuromuscular and endocrine responses of elite players to an Australian rules football match. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3:359–374Google Scholar
- Engelmann M, Landgraf R, Wotjak CT (2004) The hypothalamic–neurohypophysial system regulates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis under stress: an old concept revisited. Front Neuroendocrinol 25:132–149Google Scholar
- Hackney A (2006) Exercise as a stressor to the human neuroendocrine system. Medicina (Kaunas) 42(10):788–797Google Scholar
- Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA (2005) Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Sports Med 35:339–361Google Scholar
- Kraemer WJ, Spiering BA, Volek JS, Martin GJ, Howard RL, Ratamess NA, Hatfield DL, Vingren JL, Ho JY, Fragala MS, Thomas GA, French DN, Anderson JM, Hakkinen K, Maresh CM (2009) Recovery from a national collegiate athletic association division 1 football game: muscle damage and hormonal status. J Strength Cond Res 23:2–10Google Scholar
- Sambrook J, Russel DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Seto JT, Lek M, Quinlan KG, Houweling PJ, Zheng XF, Garton F, Macarthur DG, Raftery JM, Garvey SM, Hauser MA, Yang N, Head SI, North KN (2011) Deficiency of α‐actinin‐3 is associated with increased susceptibility to contraction‐induced damage and skeletal muscle remodeling. Hum Mol Genet 20(15):2914–2927Google Scholar
- Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Nindl BC, Volek JS, Ho JY, Maresh CM (2008) Resistance exercise biology: manipulation of resistance exercise programme variables determines the responses of cellular and molecular signalling pathways. Sports Med 38:527–540Google Scholar
- Steenberg A, Fischer CP, Keller C et al (2003) IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 285:E433–E437Google Scholar