Skip to main content

Impact of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise protocol

Abstract

This study examined effects of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise workout. Ten males completed two trials: heat exposed (with 100% fluid replacement) (HE) and dehydration (~3% body mass loss with no fluid replacement) (DEHY) achieved via hot water bath (~39°C). Following HE and DEHY, participants performed three sets to failure (using predetermined 12 repetition maximum) of bench press, lat pull down, overhead press, barbell curl, triceps press, and leg press with a 2-min recovery between each set and 2 min between exercises. A paired t test showed total repetitions (all sets combined) were significantly lower for DEHY: (144.1 ± 26.6 repetitions) versus HE: (169.4 ± 29.1 repetitions). ANOVAs showed significantly lower repetitions (~1–2 repetitions on average) per exercise for DEHY versus HE (all exercises). Pre-set rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pre-set heart rate (HR) were significantly higher [~0.6–1.1 units on average in triceps press, leg press, and approached significance in lat pull down (P = 0.14) and ~6–13 b min−1 on average in bench press, lat pull down, triceps press, and approached significance for overhead press (P = 0.10)] in DEHY versus HE. Session RPE difference approached significance (DEHY: 8.6 ± 1.9, HE: 7.4 ± 2.3) (P = 0.12). Recovery HR was significantly higher for DEHY (116 ± 15 b min−1) versus HE (105 ± 13 b min−1). Dehydration (~3%) impaired resistance exercise performance, decreased repetitions, increased perceived exertion, and hindered HR recovery. Results highlight the importance of adequate hydration during full body resistance exercise sessions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Ahlman K, Karvonen MJ (1961) Weight reduction by sweating in wrestlers and its effect on physical fitness. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1:58–62

    Google Scholar 

  • Bangsbo J, Krustrup P, Gonzalez-Alonso J, Saltin B (2001) ATP production and efficiency of human skeletal muscle during intense exercise: effect of previous exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E956–E964

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bigard A-X, Sanchez H, Claveyrolas G, Martin S, Thimonier B, Arnaud MJ (2001) Effects of dehydration and rehydration on EMG changes during fatiguing contractions. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33(10):1694–1700

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bogdanis GC, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Lakomy HK (1996) Contribution of phosphocreatine and aerobic metabolism to energy supply during repeated sprint exercise. J Appl Physiol 80(3):876–884

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bosco JS, Terjung RL, Greenleaf JE (1968) Effects of progressive hypohydration on maximal isometric muscular strength. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 8:81–86

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bosco JS, Greenleaf JE, Bernauer EM, Card DH (1974) Effects of acute dehydration and starvation on muscular strength and endurance. Acta Physiol Pol 25(5):411–421

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Caldwell JE, Ahonen E, Nousiainen U (1984) Differential effects of sauna, diuretic, and exercise induced hypohydration. J Appl Physiol 57(4):1018–1023

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Caterisano A, Camaione DN, Murphy RT, Gonino VJ (1988) The effect of differential muscular endurance during acute thermally induced hypohydration. Am J Sports Med 16:269–273

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cheuvront SN, Carter R 3rd, Sawka MN (2003) Fluid balance and endurance exercise performance. Cur Sports Med Report 2:202–208

    Google Scholar 

  • Cheuvront SN, Carter R 3rd, Haymes EM, Sawka MN (2006) No effect of moderate hypohydration or hypothermia on anaerobic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38(6):1093–1097

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37(2):247–248

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Evetovich TK, Boyd JC, Drake SM, Eschbach LC, Magal M, Soukup JT, Webster MJ, Whitehead MT, Weir JP (2002) Effect of moderate dehydration on torque, electromyography, and mechanomyography. Muscle Nerve 26:225–231

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fogelholm M (1994) Effects of bodyweight reduction on sports performance. Sports Med 18(4):249–267

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Foster C (1998) Monitoring training in athletes with reference to overtraining syndrome. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:1164–1168

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ftaiti F, Grélot L, Coudreuse JM, Nicol C (2001) The combined effect of heat stress, dehydration, and exercise on neuromuscular function in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 84(1–2):87–94

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glaister M (2005) Multiple sprint work: physiological responses, mechanisms of fatigue and the influence of aerobic fitness. Sports Med 35(9):757–777

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Greenleaf JE, Prange EM, Averkin EGJ (1967) Physical performance of women following heat-exercise hypohydration. Appl Physiol 22(1):55–60

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Greiwe JS, Staffey KS, Melrose DR, Narve MD, Knowlton RG (1998) Effects of dehydration on isometric muscular strength and endurance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30(2):284–288

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Houston ME, Marin DA, Green HJ, Thomson JA (1981) The effect of rapid weight loss on physiological function in wrestlers. Physician Sports Med 9(11):73–78

    Google Scholar 

  • Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Casa DJ, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS (2007a) Hydration and muscular performance: does fluid balance affect strength, power, and high-intensity endurance? Sports Med 37(10):907–921

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Judelson DA, Maresh CM, Farrell MJ, Yamamoto LM, Amrstrong LE, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Spiering BA, Casa DJ, Anderson JM (2007b) Effect of hydration state on strength, power, and resistance exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(10):1817–1824

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lomax RG (2001) An introduction to statistical concepts for education and behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, pp 312–314

    Google Scholar 

  • Maughan RJ, Shirreffs SM (2004) Exercise in the heat: challenges and opportunities. J Sport Sci 22:917–927

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maughan RJ, Leiper JB, Shirreffs SM (1996) Restoration of fluid balance after exercise-induced dehydration: effects of food and fluid intake. Eur J Appl Physiol 73:317–325

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Montain SJ, Smith SA, Mattot RP, Zientara GP, Jolesz FA, Sawka MN (1998) Hypohydration effects on skeletal muscle performance and metabolism: a 31P-MRS study. J Applied Physiol 84(6):1889–1894

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Newsholme EA, Blomstrand E, Ekblom B (1992) Physical and mental fatigue: metabolic mechanisms and importance of plasma amino acids. Br Med Bull 48:477–495

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nielson B, Kubica R, Bonnesen A, Rasmussen I, Stoklosa J, Wilk B (1981) Physical work capacity after dehydration and hyperthermia: a comparison of the effects of exercise versus passive heating and sauna and diuretic dehydration. Scand J Sports Sci 3(1):2–10

    Google Scholar 

  • Pollock ML, Schmidt DH, Jackson AS (1980) Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in the clinical setting. Clin Ther 6:12–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Putman CT, Jones NL, Lands LC, Bragg TM, Hollidge-Horvat MG, Heigenhauser GJ (1995) Skeletal muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase activity during maximal exercise in humans. Am J Physiol 269:E458–E468

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Robertson RJ (2004) Perceived exertion for practitioners: rating effort with the omni picture scale. Human Kinetics Champaign, USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Saltin B (1964) Aerobic and anaerobic work capacity after dehydration. J Appl Physiol 19(6):1114–1118

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS (2007) Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):377–390

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schoffstall JE, Branch JD, Leutholtz BC, Swain DP (2001) Effects of dehydration on the one-repetition maximum bench press of weight-trained males. J Strength Cond Res 15:102–108

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Serfass RC, Stull GA, Alexander JF (1984) The effects of rapid weight loss and attempted rehydration on strength and endurance of the hand gripping muscles in college wrestlers. Res Q Exerc Sport 55(1):46–52

    Google Scholar 

  • Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ (1998) Urine osmolarity and conductivity as indices of hydration status in athletes in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30(11):1598–1602

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shirreffs SM, Armstrong LE, Cheuvront S (2004) Fluid and electrolyte needs for preparation and recovery from training and competition. J Sports Sci 22:57–63

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singer RN, Weiss SA (1968) Effects of weight reduction on selected anthropometric, physical, and performance measures of wrestlers. Res Q Exerc Sport 39(2):361–369

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Steen SN, Brownell KD (1990) Patterns of weight loss and regain in wrestlers: has tradition changed? Med Sci Sports Exerc 22(6):762–768

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Torranin C, Smith DP, Byrd RJ (1979) The effect of acute thermal dehydration and rapid rehydration on isometric and isotonic endurance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 19:1–9

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Trump ME, Heigenhauser GJ, Putman CT, Spriet LL (1996) Importance of muscle phosphocreatine during intermittent maximal cycling. J Appl Physiol 80(5):1574–1580

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Viitasalo JT, Kyrolainen H, Bosco C, Alen M (1987) Effects of rapid weight reduction on force production and vertical jump height. Int J Sports Med 8:281–285

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Webster S, Rutt R, Weltman A (1990) Physiological effects of a weight loss regimen practiced by college wrestlers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 22(2):229–234

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Widerman PM, Hagan RD (1982) Body weight loss in a wrestler preparing for competition: a case study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14(6):413–418

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Yoshida T, Takanishi T, Nakai S, Yorimoto A, Morimoto T (2002) The critical level of water deficit causing a decrease in human exercise performance: a practical field study. Eur J Appl Physiol 87(6):529–534

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Justin A. Kraft.

Additional information

Communicated by Susan Ward.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kraft, J.A., Green, J.M., Bishop, P.A. et al. Impact of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol 109, 259–267 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1348-3

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1348-3

Keywords

  • Anaerobic performance
  • Dehydration
  • Hypohydration
  • Strength