The aim was to study whether whole body vibration (WBV) combined with conventional resistance training (CRT) induces a higher increase in neuromuscular and hormonal measures compared with CRT or WBV, respectively. Twenty-eight young men were randomized in three groups; squat only (S), combination of WBV and squat (S+V) and WBV only (V). S+V performed six sets with eight repetitions with corresponding eight repetition maximum (RM) loads on the vibrating platform, whereas S and V performed the same protocol without WBV and resistance, respectively. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC) with electromyography (EMG) measurements during leg press, counter movement jump (CMJ) measures (mechanical performance) including jump height, mean power (P mean), peak power (P peak) and velocity at P peak (V ppeak) and acute hormonal responses to training sessions were measured before and after a 9-week training period. ANOVA showed no significant changes between the three groups after training in any neuromuscular variable measured [except P mean, S higher than V (P<0.05)]. However, applying t tests within each group revealed that MVC increased in S and S+V after training (P<0.05). Jump height, P mean and P peak increased only in S, concomitantly with increased V ppeak in all groups (P<0.05). Testosterone increased during training sessions in S and S+V (P<0.05). Growth hormone (GH) increased in all groups but S+V showed higher responses than S and V (P<0.05). Cortisol increased only in S+V (P<0.05). We conclude that combined WBV and CRT did not additionally increase MVC and mechanical performance compared with CRT alone. Furthermore, WBV alone did not increase MVC and mechanical performance in spite of increased GH.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K (2003) Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 89:555–563
Baechle TR, Earle RW, Wathen D (2000) Resistance training. In: Baechle TR, Earle RW (eds) Essentials of strength training and conditioning. Human Kinetics, USA, pp 410–411
Baker D, Wilson G, Carlyon B (1994) Generality versus specificity a comparison of dynamic and isometric measures of strength and speed-strength. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 68(4):350–355
Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O, Colli R, Tihanyi J, Duvillard von SP, Viru A (1998) The influence of whole body vibration on jumping performance. Biol Sport 15:157–164
Bosco C, Cardinale M, Tsarpela O (1999) Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 79:306–311
Bosco C, Iacovelli M, Tsarpela O, Cardinale M, Bonifazi M, Tihanyi J, Viru M, De Lorenzo A, Viru A (2000) Hormonal responses to whole-body vibration in men. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:449–454
Burke D, Hagbarth KE, Lofstedt L, Wallin BG (1976) The responses of human muscle spindle endings to vibration during isometric contraction. J Physiol 261:695–711
Cardinale M, Bosco C (2003) The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 31:3–7
Cardinale M, Lim J (2003) Electromyography activity of vastus lateralis muscle during whole-body vibrations of different frequencies. J Strength Cond Res 17:621–624
Cardinale M, Pope MH (2003) The effects of whole body vibration on humans: dangerous or advantageous? Acta Physiol Hung 90:195–206
Caserotti P, Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Puggaard L (2001) Contraction-specific differences in maximal muscle power during stretch-shortening cycle movements in elderly males and females. Eur J Appl Physiol 84:206–212
Cochrane DJ, Legg SJ, Hooker MJ (2004) The short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res 18(4):828–832
Davis CTM, Rennie R (1968) Human Power output. Nature 217:770–771
De Ruiter CJ, van der Linden RM, van der Zijden MJ, Hollander AP, de Haan A (2003a) Short-term effects of whole-body vibration on maximal voluntary isometric knee extensor force and rate of force rise. Eur J Appl Physiol 88:472–475
De Ruiter CJ, Van Raak SM, Schilperoort JV, Hollander AP, de Haan A (2003b) The effects of 11 weeks whole body vibration training on jump height, contractile properties and activation of human knee extensors. Eur J Appl Physiol 90:595–600
Delecluse C, Roelants M, Verschueren S (2003) Strength increase after whole-body vibration compared with resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 6:1033–1041
Fishbein WI, Salter LC (1984) The relationship between truck and tractor driving and disorders of the spine and supporting structures. Spine 9:395–399
Gabriel DA, Basford JR, An KN (2002) Vibratory facilitation of strength in fatigued muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 83:1202–1205
Glowacki SP, Martin SE, Maurer A, Baek W, Green JS, Crouse SF (2004) Effects of resistance, endurance, and concurrent exercise on training outcomes in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(12):2119–2127
Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A (1993) Acute hormonal responses to two different fatiguing heavy-resistance protocols in male athletes. J Appl Physiol 74:882–887
Hansen S, Kvorning T, Kjaer M, Sjogaard G (2001) The effect of short-term strength training on human skeletal muscle: the importance of physiologically elevated hormone levels. Scand J Med Sci Sports 11:347–354
Hermens H, Freriks B, Merletti R, Hagg G, Stegeman D, Blok J, Rau G, Disselhorst-Klug C (1999) European recommendations for surface electromyography. RRD, The Netherlands
Issurin VB, Tenenbaum G (1999) Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes. J Sports Sci 17:177–82
Jackson SW, Turner DL (2003) Prolonged muscle vibration reduces maximal voluntary knee extension performance in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral limb in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 88(4–5):380–386
Kadi F (2000) Adaptation of human skeletal muscle to training and anabolic steroids. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 646:1–52
Kraemer WJ, Scott AM (2002) Hormonal mechanisms related to the expression of muscular strength and power. In: Komi PV (ed) Strength and power in sport. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 64–76
Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA (2005) Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training, Sports Med 35(4):339–361
Kraemer WJ, Marchitelli L, Gordon SE, Harman E, Dziados JE, Mello R, Frykman P, McCurry D, Fleck SJ (1990) Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise protocols. J Appl Physiol 69:1442–1450
Kraemer WJ, Staron RS, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS, Fry AC, Gordon SE, Nindl BC, Gothshalk LA, Volek JS, Marx JO, Newton RU, Häkkinen K (1998) The effects of short-term resistance training on endocrine function in men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol 78:69–76
Mester J, Spitzenpfeil P, Yue Z (2002) Vibration loads: potential for strength and power development. In: Komi PV (ed) Strength and power in sport. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 488–501
Mester J, Kleinöder H, Yue Z (2005) Vibration training: benefits and risks. J Biomech (in press)
Moritani T, deVries HA (1979) Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med 58:115–130
McCurdy KW, Langford GA, Doscher MW, Wiley LP, Mallard KG (2005) The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power. J Strength Cond Res 19(1):9–15
Rittweger J, Schiessl H, Felsenberg D (2001) Oxygen uptake during whole-body vibration exercise: comparison with squatting as a slow voluntary movement. Eur J Appl Physiol 86:169–173
Roelants M, Delecluse C, Goris M, Verschueren S (2004) Effects of 24 weeks of whole body vibration training on body composition and muscle strength in untrained females. Int J Sports Med 25:1–5
Ronnestad BR (2004) Comparing the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibrating platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res18(4):839–845
Romaiguere P, Vedel JP, Pagni S (1993) Effects of tonic vibration reflex on motor unit recruitment in human wrist extensor muscles. Brain Res 602:32–40
Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Jarvinen TL, Jarvinen M, Oja P, Vuori I (2002a) Effect of four-month vertical whole body vibration on performance and balance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1523–1528
Torvinen S, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Kannus P (2002b) Effect of 4-min vertical whole body vibration on muscle performance and body balance: a randomized cross-over study. Int J Sports Med 23:374–379
Torvinen S, Kannu P, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Jarvinen TL, Jarvinen M, Oja P, Vuori I (2002c) Effect of a vibration exposure on muscular performance and body balance. Randomized cross-over study. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 22:145–152
Torvinen S, Kannus P, Sievanen H, Jarvinen TA, Pasanen M, Kontulainen S, Nenonen A, Jarvinen TL, Paakkala T, Jarvinen M, Vuori I (2003) Effect of 8-month vertical whole body vibration on bone, muscle performance, and body balance: a randomized controlled study. J Bone Miner Res 18(5):876–884
We would like to thank the subjects who participated in the study, laboratory technician Brit Thobo-Carlsen, engineer Cuno Rasmussen, Prof. Per Aagaard and the students Søren Smedegaard, Emil Pedersen and Mogens Fog for their cooperation during the study.
About this article
Cite this article
Kvorning, T., Bagger, M., Caserotti, P. et al. Effects of vibration and resistance training on neuromuscular and hormonal measures. Eur J Appl Physiol 96, 615–625 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0139-3
- Whole body vibrations
- Muscle strength
- Muscle power
- Jump height
- Anabolic hormones