Individual differences in the responses to endurance and resistance training

Abstract

Large individual differences in the responsiveness of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) to endurance training have been observed in healthy subjects. We tested the hypothesis that subjects with a poor responsiveness to endurance training might benefit from resistance training in terms of aerobic fitness. The study population consisted of sedentary healthy male and female subjects (n=91, 42±5 year) assigned to either a training (n=73) or a control group (n=18). The randomized cross-over study design included a 2-week laboratory-controlled endurance or resistance training period with a 2-month detraining period between the interventions. Large individual differences were observed in the changes of VO2peakVO2peak) after both the endurance (average 8±6 %, P<0.001, range −5 to +22%) and resistance training (average 4±5%, P<0.001, range −8 to +16%). The average increase in ΔVO2peak between genders was similar after both the endurance (8±6% for both genders, P=ns) and resistance training (3±5% for males and 5±6% for females, P=ns). There was no linear relationship between the changes in VO2peak after each training intervention (r=−.09, P=ns). On the contrary, when the study group was divided into quartiles according to the endurance training response (1±3, 6±1, 9±1, and 16±3% increase in VO2peak), the group with the lowest response to endurance training increased VO2peak after the resistance training intervention (ΔVO2peak 7±5%, P<0.001). The individual responsiveness of VO2peak to exercise training is related to the mode of training. The healthy males and females whose training response is low after endurance training seem to result in a marked improvement in their cardiorespiratory fitness by resistance training.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand (ACSM) (1998) The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:975–991

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Blair SN, Kohl HW III, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Clark DG, Cooper KH, Gibbons LW (1989) Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. JAMA 262:2395–2401

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Borg GA (1973) Perceived exertion: a note on “history” and methods. Med Sci Sports 5:90–93

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Bouchard C, Rankinen T (2001) Individual differences in response to regular physical activity (discussion S452–S453). Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:S446–S451

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Bouchard C, An P, Rice T, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Gagnon J, Perusse L, Leon AS, Rao DC (1999) Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE family study. J Appl Physiol 87:1003–1008

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Ekelund LG, Haskell WL, Johnson JL, Whaley FS, Criqui MH, Sheps DS (1988) Physical fitness as a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in asymptomatic North American men. The Lipid Research Clinics Mortality Follow-up Study. N Engl J Med 319:1379–1384

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Erikssen G, Liestol K, Bjornholt J, Thaulow E, Sandvik L, Erikssen J (1998) Changes in physical fitness and changes in mortality. Lancet 352:759–762

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Garn SM, Leonard WR, Hawthorne VM (1986) Three limitations of the body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 44:996–997

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Hautala AJ, Makikallio TH, Kiviniemi A, Laukkanen RT, Nissila S, Huikuri HV, Tulppo MP (2003) Cardiovascular autonomic function correlates with the response to aerobic training in healthy sedentary subjects. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 285:H1747–H1752

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Hickson RC, Hagberg JM, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1981) Time course of the adaptive responses of aerobic power and heart rate to training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 13:17–20

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Howley ET, Bassett DR Jr, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R, Leon AS, Skinner JS, Rao DC, Wilmore JH, Rankinen T, Bouchard C (2004) Fitness alters the associations of BMI and waist circumference with total and abdominal fat. Obes Res 12:525–537

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Kelley GA, Kelley KS (2000) Progressive resistance exercise and resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 35:838–843

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, Dudley GA, Dooly C, Feigenbaum MS, Fleck SJ, Franklin B, Fry AC, Hoffman JR, Newton RU, Potteiger J, Stone MH, Ratamess NA, Triplett-McBride T (2002) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:364–380

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Lee CM, Wood RH, Welsch MA (2003) Influence of short-term endurance exercise training on heart rate variability. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:961–969

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Lortie G, Simoneau JA, Hamel P, Boulay MR, Landry F, Bouchard C (1984) Responses of maximal aerobic power and capacity to aerobic training. Int J Sports Med 5:232–236

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mier CM, Turner MJ, Ehsani AA, Spina RJ (1997) Cardiovascular adaptations to 10 days of cycle exercise. J Appl Physiol 83:1900–1906

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Moritani T, deVries HA (1979) Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain. Am J Phys Med 58:115–130

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Mujika I, Padilla S (2001a) Cardiorespiratory and metabolic characteristics of detraining in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:413–421

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Mujika I, Padilla S (2001b) Muscular characteristics of detraining in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1297–1303

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE (2002) Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med 346:793–801

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Perusse L, Rankinen T, Rauramaa R, Rivera MA, Wolfarth B, Bouchard C (2003) The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2002 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1248–1264

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Phillips SM (2000) Short-term training: when do repeated bouts of resistance exercise become training? Can J Appl Physiol 25:185–193

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Rankinen T, L PE, Rauramaa R, Rivera MA, Wolfarth B, Bouchard C (2004) The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2003 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1451–1469

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Sandvik L, Erikssen J, Thaulow E, Erikssen G, Mundal R, Rodahl K (1993) Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. N Engl J Med 328:533–537

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Skinner JS, Wilmore KM, Krasnoff JB, Jaskolski A, Jaskolska A, Gagnon J, Province MA, Leon AS, Rao DC, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C (2000) Adaptation to a standardized training program and changes in fitness in a large, heterogeneous population: the HERITAGE Family Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:157–161

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Skinner JS, Jaskolski A, Jaskolska A, Krasnoff J, Gagnon J, Leon AS, Rao DC, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C (2001) Age, sex, race, initial fitness, and response to training: the HERITAGE Family Study. J Appl Physiol 90:1770–1776

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Staron RS, Karapondo DL, Kraemer WJ, Fry AC, Gordon SE, Falkel JE, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS (1994) Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy-resistance training in men and women. J Appl Physiol 76:1247–1255

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Stone MH, Fleck SJ, Triplett NT, Kraemer WJ (1991) Health- and performance-related potential of resistance training. Sports Med 11:210–231

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Wong SL, Katzmarzyk P, Nichaman MZ, Church TS, Blair SN, Ross R (2004) Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower abdominal fat independent of body mass index. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:286–291

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by grants from the Ministry of Education (Helsinki, Finland) and the Medical Council of the Academy of Finland (Helsinki, Finland). The authors appreciate the technical and financial support received from Polar Electro (Kempele, Finland) and the generous help from Heart Signal (Kempele, Finland).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Arto J. Hautala.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hautala, A.J., Kiviniemi, A.M., Mäkikallio, T.H. et al. Individual differences in the responses to endurance and resistance training. Eur J Appl Physiol 96, 535–542 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-0116-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Individual training response
  • Controlled
  • Randomized cross-over study design