European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 93, Issue 1–2, pp 173–182 | Cite as

Effect of concurrent aerobic and resistance circuit exercise training on fitness in older adults

  • Nobuo Takeshima
  • Michael E. Rogers
  • Mohammod M. Islam
  • Tomoko Yamauchi
  • Eiji Watanabe
  • Akiyoshi Okada
Original Article


The purpose of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a programmed accommodating circuit exercise (PACE) program consisting of aerobic exercise and hydraulic-resistance exercise (HRE) on fitness in older adults. Thirty-five volunteers were randomly divided into two groups [PACE group (PG) 8 men and 10 women, 68.3 (4.9) years, and non-exercise control group (CG) 7 men and 10 women, 68.0 (3.4) years). The PG participated in a 12-week, 3 days per week supervised program consisting of 10 min warm-up and 30 min of PACE (moderate intensity HRE and aerobic movements at 70% of peak heart rate) followed by 10 min cool-down exercise. PACE increased (P<0.05) oxygen uptake (O2) at lactate threshold [PG, pre 0.79 (0.20) l min−1, post 1.02 (0.22) l min−1, 29%; CG, pre 0.87 (0.14) l min−1, post 0.85 (0.15) l min−1, −2%] and at peakO2 [PG, pre 1.36 (0.24) l min−1, post 1.56 (0.28) l min−1, 15%; CG, pre 1.32 (0.29) l min−1, post 1.37 (0.37) l min−1, 4%] in PG measured using an incremental cycle ergometer. Muscular strength evaluated by a HRE machine increased at low to high resistance dial settings for knee extension (9–52%), knee flexion (14–76%), back extension (18–92%) and flexion (50–70%), chest pull (6–28%) and press (3–17%), shoulder press (18–31%) and pull (26–85%), and leg press (21%). Body fat (sum of three skinfolds) decreased (16%), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) increased (10.9 mg dl−1) for PG. There were no changes in any variables for CG. These results indicate that PACE training incorporating aerobic exercise and HRE elicits significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, body composition, and HDLC for older adults. Therefore, PACE training is an effective well-rounded exercise program that can be utilized as a means to improve health-related components of fitness in older adults.


Programmed accommodating circuit exercise training Circuit exercise Aerobic combined resistance training Older adults 



The authors acknowledge the participants for their voluntary involvement in this study. This study was supported with grants from the Japanese Ministry of Education (no. 09680119) and from the Japan Ministry of Health and Welfare (no. 10150205).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nobuo Takeshima
    • 1
  • Michael E. Rogers
    • 2
  • Mohammod M. Islam
    • 1
  • Tomoko Yamauchi
    • 1
  • Eiji Watanabe
    • 3
  • Akiyoshi Okada
    • 4
  1. 1.Laboratory of Exercise Gerontology, Graduate School of Natural SciencesNagoya City UniversityNagoya Japan
  2. 2.Center for Physical Activity and Aging, Department of Kinesiology and Sport StudiesWichita State UniversityWichitaUSA
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyRyukoku UniversityShigaJapan
  4. 4.Center for Health CareAichi University of EducationAichiJapan

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