Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 91, Issue 1, pp 111–115 | Cite as

Estimation ofO2max from the ratio between HRmax and HRrest – the Heart Rate Ratio Method

  • Niels UthEmail author
  • Henrik Sørensen
  • Kristian Overgaard
  • Preben K. Pedersen
Short Communication

Abstract

The effects of ṫ̇raining and/or ageing upon maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) and heart rate values at rest (HRrest) and maximal exercise (HRmax), respectively, suggest a relationship betweenO2max and the HRmax-to-HRrest ratio which may be of use for indirect testing ofO2max. Fick principle calculations supplemented by literature data on maximum-to-rest ratios for stroke volume and the arterio-venous O2 difference suggest that the conversion factor between mass-specificO2max (ml·min−1·kg−1) and HRmax·HRrest−1 is ~15. In the study we experimentally examined this relationship and evaluated its potential for prediction ofO2max.O2max was measured in 46 well-trained men (age 21–51 years) during a treadmill protocol. A subgroup (n=10) demonstrated that the proportionality factor between HRmax·HRrest−1 and mass-specificO2max was 15.3 (0.7) ml·min−1·kg−1. Using this value,O2max in the remaining 36 individuals could be estimated with an SEE of 0.21 l·min−1 or 2.7 ml·min−1·kg−1 (~4.5%). This compares favourably with other common indirect tests. When replacing measured HRmax with an age-predicted one, SEE was 0.37 l·min−1 and 4.7 ml·min−1·kg−1 (~7.8%), which is still comparable with other indirect tests. We conclude that the HRmax-to-HRrest ratio may provide a tool for estimation ofO2max in well-trained men. The applicability of the test principle in relation to other groups will have to await direct validation.O2max can be estimated indirectly from the measured HRmax-to-HRrest ratio with an accuracy that compares favourably with that of other common indirect tests. The results also suggest that the test may be of use forO2max estimation based on resting measurements alone.

Keywords

HRmax-to-HRrest ratio Maximal heart rate Maximal oxygen uptake Resting heart rate 

Notes

Acknowledgement

We are grateful to Dr. L. Bruce Gladden for constructive help in the preparation of the manuscript.

References

  1. Andersen LB (1995) A maximal cycle exercise protocol to predict maximal oxygen uptake. Scand J Med Sci Sports 5:143–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Åstrand P-O, Rodahl K (1986) Textbook of work physiology. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 362, 368Google Scholar
  3. Åstrand P-O, Ryhming I (1954) A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity (physical fitness) from pulse rate during submaximal work. J App Physiol 7:218–221Google Scholar
  4. Bland MB, Altman DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1:307–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blomqvist CG, Saltin B (1983) Cardiovascular adaptations to physical training. Annu Rev Physiol 45:169–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Chapman CB, Fisher NJ, Sproule BJ (1960) Behavior of stroke volume at rest and during exercise in human beings. J Clin Invest 38:1208–1213Google Scholar
  7. Fox EL (1973) A simple, accurate technique for predicting maximal aerobic power. J Appl Physiol 35:914–916PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Howley ET, Bassett DR, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Katona PG, McLean M, Dighton DH, Guz A (1982) Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac control in athletes and nonathletes at rest. J Appl Physiol 52:1652–1657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Kline GM, Porcari JP, Hintermeister R, Freedson PS, Ward A, McCarron RF, Ross J, Rippe JM (1987) Estimation ofO2max from a one-mile track walk, gender, age, and body weight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 19:253–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. McCann DJ, Adams WC (2002) A theory for normalizing restingO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1382–1390PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Nottin S, Vinet A, Stecken F, Nguyen LD, Ounissi F, Lecoq AM, Obert P (2002) Central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations during a maximal cycle exercise in boys and men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:56–63Google Scholar
  13. Tanaka H, Monahan KD, Seals DR (2001) Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:153–156PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Niels Uth
    • 1
    Email author
  • Henrik Sørensen
    • 1
  • Kristian Overgaard
    • 1
  • Preben K. Pedersen
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Sport ScienceUniversity of AarhusAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Institute of Sports Science and Clinical BiomechanicsUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark

Personalised recommendations