The effects of eccentric and concentric training at different velocities on muscle hypertrophy
- 3.8k Downloads
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of isokinetic eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) training at two velocities [fast, 180° s−1 (3.14 rad s−1) and slow,30° s−1(0.52 rad s−1)] on muscle hypertrophy. Twenty-four untrained volunteers (age 18–36 years) participated in fast- (n=13) or slow- (n=11) velocity training, where they trained one arm eccentrically for 8 weeks followed by CON training of the opposite arm for 8 weeks. Ten subjects served as controls (CNT). Subjects were tested before and after training for elbow flexor muscle thickness by sonography and isokinetic strength (Biodex). Overall, ECC training resulted in greater hypertrophy than CON training (P<0.01). No significant strength or hypertrophy changes occurred in the CNT group. ECC (180° s−1) training resulted in greater hypertrophy than CON (180° s−1) training and CON (30° s−1) training (P<0.01). ECC (30° s−1) training resulted in greater hypertrophy than CON (180° s−1) training (P<0.05), but not CON (30° s−1) training. ECC (180° s−1) training resulted in the greatest increases in strength (P<0.01). We conclude that ECC fast training is the most effective for muscle hypertrophy and strength gain.
KeywordsResistance training Strength
We gratefully acknowledge the subjects who dedicated a great deal of time to participate in this study. We also acknowledge the technical assistance of Doug Jacobson. Jonathan Farthing is supported by a scholarship from The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. The experiments described in this paper comply with the current laws of Canada.
- Behm DG (1995) Neuromuscular implications and applications of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 9:264–274Google Scholar
- Davies J, Parker DF, Rutherford OM, Jones DA (1988) Changes in strength and cross-sectional area of the elbow flexor as a result of isometric training. Eur J Appl Physiol 57:667–670Google Scholar
- Duncan PW, Chandler JM, Cavanaugh DK, Johnson KR, Buehler AG (1989) Mode and speed specificity of eccentric and concentric exercise training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 11:70–75Google Scholar
- Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD (2003) The effect of eccentric training at different velocities on cross-education. Eur J Appl Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
- Fridén J, Sjöstrom M, Ekblom B (1983) Myofibrillar damage following intense eccentric exercise in man. Int J Sports Med 3:170–176Google Scholar
- Goldberg AL, Etlinger JD, Goldspink DF, Jablecki C (1975) Mechanism of work-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 7:185–198Google Scholar
- Hortobágyi T, Katch FI (1990a) Eccentric and concentric torque–velocity relationships during arm flexion and extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 60:395–401Google Scholar
- Maughan RJ, Watson JS, Weir J (1983) Strength and cross-sectional area of human skeletal muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 338:37–49Google Scholar
- Ryan LM, Magidow PS, Duncan PW (1991) Velocity-specific and mode-specific effects of eccentric isokinetic training of the hamstrings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 13:33–39Google Scholar
- Tomberlin JP, Basford JR, Schwen EE, Orte PA, Scott SG, Laughman RK, Ilstrup DM. (1991) Comparative study of isokinetic eccentric and concentric quadriceps training. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 14: 31–36Google Scholar
- Westing HS, Cresswell AG, Thorstensson A (1991) Muscle activation during maximal voluntary eccentric and concentric knee extension. Eur J Appl Physiol 62:104–108Google Scholar