To elucidate the impact of social support and its interrelations with other demand–control–support (DCS) model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism, and to determine which DCS factors were most influential.
Questionnaires from 2535 local government employees were analyzed. The Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ) was used to assess DCS factors including job demand, job control, and social support from supervisors and coworkers. The Stanford Presenteeism Scale 13-item version (SPS-13) was used to evaluate both absenteeism (absent days) and presenteeism. For the latter, the Work Impairment Score (WIS) and the Work Output Score (WOS) were also used. Possible confounder-adjusted logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were performed to obtain odds ratios (ORs) for WIS and WOS and relative risks (RRs) for absenteeism according to DCS factors.
Higher job control had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Based on a point estimate of an OR per 1 standard deviation change of each DCS factor, job control had the strongest effect on higher WIS in both males and females and a lower WOS in males. Higher job demand resulted in significantly higher ORs for both male and female WIS, and a lower WOS in females. Support from supervisors had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in females and a lower WOS in males. Support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on higher WIS in males. Higher support from coworkers had a significantly protective effect on absenteeism among both males and females, and higher job control had a significantly protective effect in females. The combination of high job strain and low support from supervisors had a significantly worsening effect, except for absenteeism in females. High job strain and low support from coworkers had a significantly worsening effect except for WOS in males.
The results suggest job control was the DCS factor most related to presenteeism. Higher support from supervisors and coworkers had a protective effect on presenteeism, and higher job demand had a worsening effect. Higher support from coworkers had a protective effect on absenteeism among both males and females. Interventions should focus on improving job control as a possible countermeasure to presenteeism, and encouraging support from coworkers as a possible countermeasure to absenteeism.
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Saijo, Y., Yoshioka, E., Nakagi, Y. et al. Social support and its interrelationships with demand–control model factors on presenteeism and absenteeism in Japanese civil servants. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 90, 539–553 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-017-1218-y
- Job demand
- Job control
- Social support from supervisors
- Social support from coworkers