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Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia

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The purpose of this study was to test whether population mortality rates from heart, respiratory and kidney disease were higher as a function of levels of Appalachian coal mining after control for other disease risk factors.


The study investigated county-level, age-adjusted mortality rates for the years 2000–2004 for heart, respiratory and kidney disease in relation to tons of coal mined. Four groups of counties were compared: Appalachian counties with more than 4 million tons of coal mined from 2000 to 2004; Appalachian counties with mining at less than 4 million tons, non-Appalachian counties with coal mining, and other non-coal mining counties across the nation. Forms of chronic illness were contrasted with acute illness. Poisson regression models were analyzed separately for male and female mortality rates. Covariates included percent male population, college and high school education rates, poverty rates, race/ethnicity rates, primary care physician supply, rural-urban status, smoking rates and a Southern regional variable.


For both males and females, mortality rates in Appalachian counties with the highest level of coal mining were significantly higher relative to non-mining areas for chronic heart, respiratory and kidney disease, but were not higher for acute forms of illness. Higher rates of acute heart and respiratory mortality were found for non-Appalachian coal mining counties.


Higher chronic heart, respiratory and kidney disease mortality in coal mining areas may partially reflect environmental exposure to particulate matter or toxic agents present in coal and released in its mining and processing. Differences between Appalachian and non-Appalachian areas may reflect different mining practices, population demographics, or mortality coding variability.

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This research was partially supported by a grant to the author from the Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University. The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of Kathryn O’Donnell in the preparation of the data sets used in this study.

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Correspondence to Michael Hendryx.

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Hendryx, M. Mortality from heart, respiratory, and kidney disease in coal mining areas of Appalachia. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 82, 243–249 (2009).

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