Skip to main content
Log in

Pooled analysis of two case–control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997–2003

  • Original Article
  • Published:
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Objectives: To study the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Methods: Two case–control studies on malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997–2003 included answers from 905 (90%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20–80 years. We present pooled analysis of the results in the two studies. Results: Cumulative lifetime use for >2,000 h yielded for analogue cellular phones odds ratio (OR)=5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5–14, digital cellular phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7–7.7, and for cordless phones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.5–3.6. Ipsilateral exposure increased the risk for malignant brain tumours; analogue OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.5–2.9, digital OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4–2.4, and cordless OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3–2.2. For high-grade astrocytoma using >10 year latency period analogue phones yielded OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.8–4.2, digital phones OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8–8.1, and cordless phones OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3–3.9. In the multivariate analysis all phone types increased the risk. Regarding digital phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.5–9.1 and cordless phones OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.97–4.6 were calculated for malignant brain tumours for subjects with first use use <20 years of age, higher than in older persons. Conclusion: Increased risk was obtained for both cellular and cordless phones, highest in the group with >10 years latency period.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Auvinen A, Hietanen M, Luukonen R, Koskela RS (2002) Brain tumors and salivary gland cancers among cellular telephone users. Epidemiology 13:356–359

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christensen HC, Schüz J, Kosteljanetz M, Poulsen HS, Thomsen J, Johansen C (2004) Cellular telephone use and risk of acoustic neuroma. Am J Epidemiol 159:277–283

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christensen HC, Schüz J, Kosteljanetz M, Poulsen HS, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Johansen C (2005) Cellular telephones and risk for brain tumors. A population-based, incident case–control study. Neurology 64:1189–1195

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Janh O, Rüdiger H (2005).Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulosa cells in vitro. Mutat Res 583:178–183

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hansson Mild K, Hardell L, Kundi M, Mattsson M-O (2003) Mobile telephones and cancer: Is there really no evidence of an association? (Review). Int J Mol Med 12:67–72

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Näsman Å, Påhlson A, Hallquist A, Hansson Mild K (1999) Use of cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours: A case-control study. Int J Oncol 15:113–116

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Påhlson A, Hallquist A (2001) Ionising radiation, cellular telephones and the risk for brain tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev 10:523–529

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Hallquist A, Hansson Mild K, Carlberg M, Påhlson A, Lilja A (2002) Cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumours. Eur J Cancer Prev 11:377–386

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Carlberg M (2003a) Further aspects on cellular and cordless telephones and brain tumours. Int J Oncol 22:399–407

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Sandström M, Carlberg M, Hallquist A, Påhlson A (2003b) Vestibular schwannoma, tinnitus and cellular telephones. Neuroepidemiology 22:124–129

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2005a) Case–control study on cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for acoustic neuroma or meningioma in patients diagnosed 2000–2003. Neuroepidemiology 25:120–128

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hardell L, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K (2005b) Case–control study of the association between the use of cellular and cordless telephones and malignant brain tumors diagnosed during 2000–2003 (2005b) Env Res doi:10.1016/j.envres.2005.04.006

  • Hardell L, Hansson Mild K, Kundi M (2005c) Re: Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk, Am J Epidemiol 162:600–601

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Heflin LH, Meyerowitz BE, Hall P, Lichtenstein P, Johansson B, Pedersen NL, Gatz M (2005) Cancer as a risk factor for long-term cognitive deficits and dementia. JNCI 97:854–856

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Inskip PD, Tarone RE, Hatch EE, Wilcosky TC, Shapiro WR, Selker RG, Fine HA, Black PM, Loeffler JS, Linet MS (2001) Cellular-telephone use and brain tumors. New Engl J Med 344:79–86

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Johansen C, Boice JD Jr, McLaughlin JK, Olsen JH (2001) Cellular telephones and cancer—a nationwide cohort study in Denmark. J Natl Cancer Inst 93:203–207

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Klæbo L (2005) Mobile phones and brain tumours. Cell Phones & Cancer. Annual ECP Symposium & Michael J Hill Memorial Lecture. Blakenberge, Belgium, November 4–5, 2005

  • Kundi M (2004) Mobile phone use and cancer. Occup Environ Med 61:560–570

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kundi M, Hansson Mild K, Hardell L, Mattsson M-O (2004) Mobile telephones and cancer—a review of epidemiological evidence. J Toxicol Environ Health B 7(5):351–384

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lahkola A, Salminen T, Auvinen A (2005) Selection bias due to differential participation in a case–control study of mobile phone use and brain tumors. Ann Epidemiol 15:321–325

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lönn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M (2004) Mobile phone use and the risk of acoustic neuroma. Epidemiology 15:653–659

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lönn S, Ahlbom A, Hall P, Feychting M, Swedish Interphone Study Group (2005) Long-term mobile phone use and brain tumor risk. Am J Epidemiol 161:526–535

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Muscat JE, Malkin MG, Thompson S, Shore RE, Stellman SD, McRee D, Neugut AI, Wynder EL (2000) Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer. JAMA 284:3001–3007

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oksbjerg Dalton S, Mellemkjær L, Olsen JH, Mortensen PB, Johansen C (2002) Depression and cancer risk: A registry-based study of patients hospitalized with affective disorders, Denmark, 1969–1993. Am J Epidemiol 155:1088–1095

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Persson T, Törnevik C, Larsson L-E, Lovén J (2002) GSM mobile phone output power distribution by network analysis of all calls in some urban, rural and in-office networks, complemented by test phone measurements. Twenty-fourth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, pp 181–183

  • Preston-Martin S, Mack WJ (1996) Neoplasms of the nervous system. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr (eds) Cancer epidemiology and prevention. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 1231–1281

    Google Scholar 

  • REFLEX final report (2005) Risk evaluation of potential environmental hazards from low frequency electromagnetic field exposure using sensitive in vitro methods http://www.itis.ethz.ch/downloads/REFLEX_Final%20Report_171104.pdf (assessed August 25, 2005)

  • Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Ahlbom A, Auvinen A, Blaasaas KG, Cardis E, Collatz Christensen H, Feychting M, Hepworths SJ, Johansen C, Klæboe L, Lönn S, McKinney PA, Muir K, Raitanen J, Salminen T, Thomsen J, Tynes T (2005) Mobile phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma: results of the Interphone case–control study in five North European countries. Br J Cancer 93:842–848

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Whittle IR, Smith C, Navoo P, Collie D (2004) Meningiomas. Lancet 363:1535–1543

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by grants from Cancer-och Allergifonden, Cancerhjälpen, Nyckelfonden, Örebro Cancer Fund

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lennart Hardell.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Hardell, L., Carlberg, M. & Hansson Mild, K. Pooled analysis of two case–control studies on use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours diagnosed in 1997–2003. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 79, 630–639 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-006-0088-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-006-0088-5

Keywords

Navigation