Dietary cadmium intake in polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan in the past and in the present
- 266 Downloads
The purpose of this data compilation is to overview past and current dietary exposure (primarily via rice) of general populations to cadmium (Cd) in environmentally polluted and non-polluted areas in Japan, and to compare the levels with counterpart levels in other areas in Asia.
A literature survey was conducted for publications on this subject, in either Japanese or international languages, since the early 1970s. Most of the studies identified employed the food-duplicate method in combination with atomic absorption spectrometry for Cd determination, although a few studies utilized other methods, such as the market basket method and dithizon-colorimetry.
The highest estimate of dietary Cd intake (Cd-D), 600 μg Cd/day, was reported in the late 1960s for the local population in the Jinzu river basin, where Itai-itai disease had been endemic, and the Cd-D levels were 300 μg/day or higher in other polluted areas. Cd-D dropped to well below 100 μg/day when the polluted soil was replaced in the late 1970s and thereafter. In non-polluted areas, the Cd-D was reported to be approximately 100 μg/day in 1969, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 40 μg/day in the late 1970s, to reach the current level of less than 30 μg/day. There is a trend of gradual reduction at the rate of 0.3 to 0.6 μg/day per year. Cd from rice accounted for 30 to 40% of the Cd-D in non-polluted areas, but a higher contribution was observed in some polluted areas. Nevertheless, the current Cd-D is still higher than the levels in other rice-dependent populations in east and south-east Asia.
The Cd-D levels reported for polluted areas were in excess of 300 μg Cd/day. Substantial reduction in Cd-D to the level below 100 μg/day was observed after remediation, such as replacement of polluted paddy soil. In non-polluted areas, there has been a gradual decrease in Cd-D in the past 25 years. Nevertheless, the levels in the current intake of the general population in Japan (25 to 30 μg/day, or <1/10 of the levels in polluted areas in the past) is still higher than the levels in other rice-dependent areas in Asia.
KeywordsCadmium Dietary intake Environmental pollution General population Japan
- Environment Agency of the Government of Japan (1972) Counter-measures against environmental pollution with cadmium (in Japanese). The Environment Agency, Tokyo, pp 167–168Google Scholar
- Fan J-J, Aoshima K, Katoh T, Teranishi H, Kasuya M (1998) A follow-up study on renal tubular dysfunction in women living in the cadmium-polluted Jinzu river basin in Toyama, Japan. Part 1. Changes in the levels of exposure to cadmium after soil replacement of polluted paddy fields and the related effects on the prognosis of renal tubular dysfunction (in Japanese with English abstract). Jpn J Hyg 53:545–557Google Scholar
- Food and Agricultural Organization (1984) Food Balance Sheets, 1979–1981 Average. Food and Agricultural Organization, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Fukushima M (1972) Cadmium levels in various food items (in Japanese). Kankyo Hoken Rep 11:22–25Google Scholar
- Ishizaki A, Fukushima M (1968) Studies on “Itai-itai” disease (review; in Japanese with English abstract). Jpn J Hyg 23:271–285Google Scholar
- Ishizaki A, Fukushima, M., Sakamoto M (1969) Distribution of Cd in biological materials. Part. 1 Human hair and rice straw (in Japanese with English abstract). Jpn J Hyg 24:375–379Google Scholar
- Ishizaki A, Fukushima M, Sakamoto M (1970) Distribution of Cd in biological materials. Part. 2 Cadmium and zinc contents of foodstuffs (in Japanese with English abstract). Jpn J Hyg 25:207–222Google Scholar
- Japan Public Health Association (1970) Report on dietary intake of cadmium in cadmium-polluted areas in Japan (in Japanese). Japan Public Health Association, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Kitamura S (1972) Cadmium in rice. Role of rice in nutrition for people in Japan; dependency on rice (in Japanese). Japan Rice Association, Tokyo, pp 78–126Google Scholar
- Ministry of Health and Welfare, the Government of Japan (1970, 1972) National nutritional survey in Japan, 1968 and 1970 (in Japanese). Dai-ichi Shuppan Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the Government of Japan (2002) National nutritional survey in Japan, 2000 (in Japanese). Dai-ichi Shuppan Press, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Moon C-S, Zhang Z-W, Watanabe T, Shimbo S, Nor-Hassim I, Jamal HH, Ikeda M (1996) Non-occupational exposure of Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to cadmium and lead. Biomarkers 1:81–85Google Scholar
- Moritsugu M, Kobayashi J (1963) Trace metals in biological materials. Part 2. Cadmium in rice (in Japanese). Research in Agricultural Sciences (Nogaku Kenkyu) 50:37–49Google Scholar
- Nagasaki prefecture (Department of the Environment and the Institute of Public Health) (1984) Report on intake and excretion of heavy metals (including cadmium) among the residents in cadmium-polluted areas in Izuhara Town, Nagasaki prefecture (in Japanese). Office of Nagasaki prefecture, Nagasaki, JapanGoogle Scholar
- National Institute of Health Sciences (2002) Total diet survey in Japan (estimation of daily dietary intake of food contaminants, 1977–2001). National Institute of Health Sciences, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Saito H, Takemura S, Harada K, Hara K (eds) (1993) Chronic cadmium poisoning (in Japanese). The Second Department of Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, pp 42–43Google Scholar
- Saito H, Arisawa K, Nakano A, Liu G, Miyazaki M, Nagata Y, Yokoo M, Sakuma T, Tanimura K, Moji K, Takahashi T, Watanabe T, Nishihara J, Tsutsumi K, Yamamoto Y, Hayashima O, Shigaki K (2003) Epidemiological significance of cadmium concentrations in blood and hair as an indicator of total body burden of cadmium among residents in cadmium-polluted areas (in Japanese). Presentation at the annual meeting of the study group on heavy metal toxicology, March 2003, Tokyo, JapanGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki S (1976) Intake and metabolism of metals in general Japanese population: cadmium (in Japanese). Progress in Medicine (Igaku no Ayumi) 99:150–156Google Scholar
- Tsuchiya K, Iwao S (1978) Dietary cadmium intake of residents in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita, Ishikawa and Nagasaki prefectures (in Japanese). Kankyo Hoken Rep 44; 86–115Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (1985) Guidelines for the study of dietary intake of chemical contaminants. WHO offset publication No. 87. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- Yamagata N, Iwashima K (1975) Average cadmium intake of the Japanese people. Bull Inst Public Health 24:18–24Google Scholar