Epidemiological studies have reported an association between exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) and increased risk of cancerous diseases, albeit without dose–effect relationships. The validity of such findings can be corroborated only by demonstration of dose-dependent DNA-damaging effects of ELF-EMFs in cells of human origin in vitro.
Cultured human diploid fibroblasts were exposed to intermittent ELF electromagnetic fields. DNA damage was determined by alkaline and neutral comet assay.
ELF-EMF exposure (50 Hz, sinusoidal, 1–24 h, 20–1,000 μT, 5 min on/10 min off) induced dose-dependent and time-dependent DNA single-strand and double-strand breaks. Effects occurred at a magnetic flux density as low as 35 μT, being well below proposed International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. After termination of exposure the induced comet tail factors returned to normal within 9 h.
The induced DNA damage is not based on thermal effects and arouses concern about environmental threshold limit values for ELF exposure.
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This study was funded by the European Union under the programme "Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources", Key Action 4 "Environment and Health": QLK4-CT-01574.
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Ivancsits, S., Diem, E., Jahn, O. et al. Intermittent extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields cause DNA damage in a dose-dependent way. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 76, 431–436 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-003-0446-5
- 50-Hz sinusoidal
- Intermittent exposure
- Comet assay