Histochemical examination on the peri-implant bone with early occlusal loading after the immediate placement into extraction sockets
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Early and immediate loading of dental implants has become a routine procedure in dental practices throughout the world, but the histological feature of peri-implant bone has not been fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the histological response of peri-implant bone bearing the early occlusal loading using rat models. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to extraction of their maxillary left first molars and had titanium implants inserted immediately into the post-extraction sockets. In experimental groups at 1 week after placement, implants were loaded for 1 or 2 weeks by adding adhesive resin on the top of the screws. In control groups, no adhesive resin was added to the implants. After 1 or 2 weeks with loading, rats were fixed with an aldehyde solution for histochemical assessment. Newly-formed bone adhered broadly to the implant surface in both the control and experimental groups. The experimental group loaded for 2 weeks showed thicker trabeculae between the implant threads compared to those in the control group. Osteopontin- and osteocalcin-positive cement lines, which are histological hallmarks of bone remodeling, were narrow and smooth in the experimental groups, while featuring a complex meshwork with thick scalloped lines in the control groups. The index of sclerostin-positive osteocytes located close to implants loaded for 2 weeks was significantly lower than in controls, suggesting that osteoblast activity was preserved. Summarizing, our experimental model suggested that early implant loading increases trabecular thickness in the peri-implant bone tissue in a process that involves the regulation of bone remodeling.
KeywordsDental implant Early occlusal loading Bone Osseointegration
The authors thank Dr. N. Amizuka and H. Hongo for their invaluable suggestions for histochemical analyses.
This study was partially supported by Grants (23659893) from Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science (Yokoyama A).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
No conflict of interest is declared.
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