Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSC) express oligodendrocyte and myelin markers, but they do not function as oligodendrocytes
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Mesenchymal cells cultured from the vasculo-stromal fraction of adipose tissue (ADSC) show adult stem cell characteristics and several groups have claimed generating neural cells from them. However, we have observed that many markers commonly used for the identification of neural cells are spontaneously expressed by ADSC in culture. In the present study, we have examined the expression of characteristic oligodendrocyte molecules in cultured ADSC, aiming to test if myelinating cells could be generated from accessible non-neural adult tissues. In basal growth conditions, rat ADSC spontaneously expressed CNPase, MBP, MOG, protein zero, GAP43, Sox10, and Olig2, as shown by immunocytrochemistry and western blot. A small population of cultured ADSC expressed membrane galactocerebroside (O1 antibody), but no cell stained with O4 antibody. RT-PCR analyses showed the expression of CNPase, MBP, DM20, and low levels of Olig2, Sox10, and Sox2 mRNA by rat ADSC. When rat ADSC were treated with combinations of factors commonly used in neural-inducing media (retinoic acid, dbcAMP, EGF, basic FGF, NT3, and/or PDGF), the number of O1-positive cells changed, but in no case, mRNA expression of Sox10 and Olig2 transcription factors approached CNS oligodendrocyte levels. In co-culture with rat dorsal root ganglion neurons, no sign of axonal myelination by rat ADSC was observed. These studies show that the expression of oligodendrocyte traits by cultured ADSC is not a proof of functional competence as oligodendroglia and suggest that in culture conditions, ADSC acquire intermediate, uncommitted phenotypes.
KeywordsMesenchymal stem cells Oligodendrocyte Galactocerebroside Myelin proteins Myelination in culture
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells
Dorsal root ganglion
Mesenchymal stem cells
Myelin basic protein
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
Neural/glial antigen 2 (chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4)
Low-affinity NGF receptor, p75
Myelin protein zero
Myelin proteolipid protein
We thank the help of Prof. M.V. Toledo-Lobo in various parts of the study and in S.M. Fig. 6, of Dr. E. Rodríguez-Martín in cytometry included in S.M. Fig. 8 and of Drs. M.L. Hernández-Bule and M.A. Martínez in ADSC multipotentiality tests. This work was supported by the Agencia Laín Entralgo, Comunidad de Madrid NDG09/14 and Project VEXEM 2014/0023.
LV designed and performed experiments and data analysis and contributed with manuscript writing. MPM performed experiments. CLP coordinated the study, designed and performed experiments and data analysis, and wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no potential conflicts of interest.
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