RETRACTED ARTICLE: A comparison of risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese patients

Abstract

Purpose

Neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) are important vision-threatening diseases worldwide. For effective treatment, the risk factors for the diseases merit investigation. This study aimed to compare the risk factors for nAMD vs. PCV in Chinese patients.

Methods

A total of 946 participants were recruited in this case-control study, including 281 patients with nAMD, 306 patients with PCV, and 359 controls. All participants underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. Information on risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the difference in risk factors between nAMD and PCV. In a subgroup of subjects, serum lipid data were obtained and analyzed.

Results

Risk factors for nAMD included older age (OR 1.03, P = 0.001), male gender (OR 1.55, P = 0.020), asthma (OR 2.50, P = 0.028), smoking (OR 1.92, P = 0.001), and family history (OR 6.82, P = 0.001), while smoking (OR 1.67, P = 0.013) was the only risk factor for PCV. Compared to patients with PCV, patients with nAMD were more likely to be older and suffer from hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, rheumatism, and tumor. Interestingly, higher levels of high-density lipoprotein were positively associated with PCV in the subgroup analysis (OR 7.74, P = 0.011). Besides, results were quite different between the combination of patients with nAMD and PCV and patients with nAMD or PCV alone.

Conclusions

The risk factors for nAMD and PCV is varying with the exception of smoking. Our findings suggest that different strategies might be applied in the clinical management and scientific research on nAMD and PCV.

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Change history

  • 04 June 2019

    The article "A comparison of risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese patients" has been retracted.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yan-Kun Yue.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Additional information

This article has been retracted at the request of the authors. The data in this article was used without the consent, acknowledgement and the approval of one of the recruiting hospitals. There was admixing of data derived from two hospitals and the subsequent analysis of the data was scientifically unreliable. All authors agree to this retraction.

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Chen, X., Hu, Q., Bai, Y. et al. RETRACTED ARTICLE: A comparison of risk factors for age-related macular degeneration and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Chinese patients. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 256, 1449–1457 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-018-4020-y

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Keywords

  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy
  • Risk factor
  • Asthma
  • Hyperlipidemia