To analyze the binocular function changes produced on subjects undergoing overnight orthokeratology (OK) treatment over short-term (3 months) and long-term (3 years) wear.
A prospective, longitudinal study on young adult subjects with low to moderate myopia was carried out. Binocular function was assessed by the following sequence of tests: Distance and near horizontal phoria (Von Graefe technique), distance and near horizontal vergence ranges (Risley rotary prisms), accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio (gradient method) and the near point of convergence (standard push-up technique). The short-term sample consisted of: 21 subjects in the control group, 26 in a corneal refractive therapy (CRT) treatment lenses group and 25 in a Seefree treatment lenses group. Those subjects were evaluated at baseline and at a 3-month follow-up visit. Twenty one subjects were old CRT wearers that attended a 3-year follow-up visit (long-term group).
A statistically significant difference over the 3-month treatment was found for divergence at distance: the break point decreased 1.4 Δ (p = 0.0006) in the CRT group and the recovery point increased 1.2 Δ (p = 0.001) in the Seefree group. Also, the Seefree group had an exophoric trend of 2.3 Δ at near (p = 0.02) and a base-out break decrease of 2.3 Δ (p = 0.03). For the long-term group, only the base-out break point at distant vision showed a statistically significant difference of 4.9 Δ (p = 0.02).
OK induces minimal changes in the binocular function for either short-term or long-term periods, apart from a near exophoric trend over the short-term period.
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The authors want to thank Interlenco (Madrid, Spain) and Conóptica (Barcelona, Spain) laboratories for their support.
Conflict of interest
All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Felipe-Marquez, G., Nombela-Palomo, M., Palomo-Álvarez, C. et al. Binocular function changes produced in response to overnight orthokeratology. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 255, 179–188 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00417-016-3554-0
- Binocular function
- Fusional vergences
- Contact lenses