Skip to main content


Log in

Pediatric posttraumatic endophthalmitis

  • Retinal Disorders
  • Published:
Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology Aims and scope Submit manuscript



To identify the etiology, pars plana vitrectomy results, culture results, and visual outcome of endophthalmitis in the pediatric age group.


Fifteen eyes of 15 consecutive pediatric patients who were treated and followed up for endophthalmitis between July 2011 and December 2012 were included in this study. Combined pars plana vitrectomy and intravitreal norvancomycin plus ceftazidime injection was performed on all 15 eyes. The vitreous samples were obtained by a standard pars plana vitrectomy. The specimens were sent to microbiology facility for gram staining, culturing, and sensitivity testing.


The mean age of the patients was 5.3 ± 2.8 years (3–10 years). The mean follow-up time was 9.7 ± 1.5 months (7–12 months). Preoperatively, the visual acuities of the patients were as follows: light perception (n = 7), hand movements (n = 4), and counting fingers from 30 cm (n = 1), and these values were not available in three patients (n = 3). Postoperatively, the final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 or better in six (40 %), counting of fingers in four (26.7 %), light perception to hand movements in two (13.3 %), and no light perception in one (6.7 %), with results being unavailable for two patients. Positive culture results were obtained from ten eyes (66.7 %). A single species was isolated in eight eyes, and multiple organisms were isolated in two eyes.


Penetrating ocular trauma was the most common cause of pediatric endophthalmitis in this consecutive series of endophthalmitis. Staphylococci and Streptococcus species were the most common isolated organisms. Patients with multiple organisms had poor visual recovery. Visual outcomes were poor in this series in spite of vitrectomy being performed immediately on all patients.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Bayar H, Coskun E, Öner V, Gokcen C, Aksoy U, Okumus S, Erbagci I (2015) Association between penetrating eye injuries and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Br J Ophthalmol 99:1109–1111

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Weinstein GS, Mondino BJ, Weinberg RJ, Biglan AW (1979) Endophthalmitis in a pediatric population. Ann Ophthalmol 11:935–943

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Thordsen JE, Harris L, Hubbard GB 3rd (2008) Pediatric endophthalmitis. A 10-year consecutive series. Retina 28:S3–S7

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Alfaro DV, Roth DB, Laughlin RM, Goyal M, Liggett PE (1995) Paediatric post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Br J Ophthalmol 79:888–891

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Alfaro DV, Roth D, Liggett PE (1994) Posttraumatic endophthalmitis. Causative organisms, treatment, and prevention. Retina 14:206–211

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Peyman GA, Carroll CP, Raichand M (1980) Prevention and management of traumatic endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology 87:320–324

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Puliafito CA, Baker AS, Haaf J, Foster CS (1982) Infectious endophthalmitis. Review of 36 cases. Ophthalmology 89:921–929

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Brinton GS, Topping TM, Hyndiuk RA, Aaberg TM, Reeser FH, Abrams GW (1984) Posttraumatic endophthalmitis. Arch Ophthalmol 102:547–550

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Essex RW, Yi Q, Charles PG, Allen PJ (2004) Post-traumatic endophthalmitis. Ophthalmology 111:2015–2022

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Al-Rashaed SA, Abu El-Asrar AM (2006) Exogenous endophthalmitis in pediatric age group. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 14:285–292

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Haixiang Wu.

Ethics declarations


National Natural Science Foundation provided financial support in the form of National Natural Science Foundation for Young Scholar of China (81300781) funding. The sponsor had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Conflict of interest

All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge, or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wu, H., Ding, X., Zhang, M. et al. Pediatric posttraumatic endophthalmitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 254, 1919–1922 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: