Role of preoperative cycloplegic refraction in LASIK treatment of hyperopia
Previous studies have suggested that, to improve refractive predictability in hyperopic LASIK treatments, preoperative cycloplegic or manifest refraction, or a combination of both, could be used in the laser nomogram. We set out to investigate (1) the prevalence of a high difference between manifest and cycloplegic spherical equivalent in hyperopic eyes preoperatively, and (2) the related predictability of postoperative keratometry.
Retrospective cross-sectional data analysis of consecutive treated 186 eyes from 186 consecutive hyperopic patients (mean age 42 [±12] years) were analyzed. Excimer ablation for all eyes was performed using a mechanical microkeratome (SBK, Moria, France) and an Allegretto excimer laser platform. Two groups were defined according to the difference between manifest and cycloplegic spherical equivalent which was defined as ≥1.00 diopter (D); the data was analyzed according to refractive outcome in terms of refractive predictability, efficacy, and safety.
In 24 eyes (13 %), a preoperative difference of ≥1.00D between manifest spherical equivalent and cycloplegic spherical equivalent (= MCD) occurred. With increasing preoperative MCD, the postoperative achieved spherical equivalent showed hyperopic regression after 3 months. There was no statistically significant effect of age (accommodation) or optical zone size on the achieved spherical equivalent.
A difference of ≥1.00D occurs in about 13 % of hyperopia cases. We suggest that hyperopic correction should be based on the manifest spherical equivalent in eyes with preoperative MCD <1.00D. If the preoperative MCD is ≥1.00D, treatment may produce manifest undercorrection, and therefore we advise that the patient should be warrned about lower predictability, and suggest basing conclusions on the arithmetic mean calculated from the preoperative manifest and cycloplegic spheres.
KeywordsHyperopia LASIK Cycloplegic refraction Manifest refraction Refractive predictability
Compliance with ethical standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
No funding was received for this research.
Conflict of interest
All authors certify that they have no affiliations with or involvement in any organization or entity with any financial interest (such as honoraria; educational grants; participation in speakers’ bureaus; membership, employment, consultancies, stock ownership, or other equity interest; and expert testimony or patent-licensing arrangements), or non-financial interest (such as personal or professional relationships, affiliations, knowledge, or beliefs) in the subject matter or materials discussed in this manuscript.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.