Changes of TGF-β2, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 levels in the vitreous of patients with high myopia

  • Hong Zhuang
  • Rong Zhang
  • Qinmeng Shu
  • Rui Jiang
  • Qing Chang
  • Xin Huang
  • Chunhui Jiang
  • Gezhi XuEmail author
Basic Science



To investigate the concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 in the vitreous of patients with high myopia.


Twenty-six patients with high myopia (HM) who received vitrectomy for macular retinoschisis or macular hole were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-six patients with idiopathic macular hole or macular epiretinal membrane were chosen as a control group. Vitreous samples were obtained during the vitrectomy surgery. The levels of TGF-β2、MMP-2、TIMP-2 in the vitreous samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MMP activity was determined by a fluorometric assay.


There was no significant difference in the vitreous level of TGF-β2 between HM (1.64 ± 0.38 ng/ml) and the control group (1.56 ± 0.32 ng/ml, p = 0.56). The vitreous levels of MMP-2 in HM (32.40 ± 14.90 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in the control group (21.42 ± 6.74 ng/ml, p < 0.01). The ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-2 was significantly elevated in the vitreous samples from HM (0.61 ± 0.19), compared to the control group (0.48 ± 0.11, p < 0.05). The MMP activity was also significantly elevated in the vitreous samples from HM (4,030.8 ± 1,257.3 FIU), compared to the control group (3,245.8 ± 835.6 FIU, p < 0.05).


The elevated MMP/TIMP ratio and MMP activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of human high myopia. Large prospective studies are needed to further investigate the effect of MMPs in the pathogenesis of human high myopia.


Transforming growth factor β2 Matrix metalloproteinase 2 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 Vitreous High myopia 



This work was supported by grants from the National Key Basic Research Program of China (2013CB967503) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. NSFC 81170857). The funders had no role in the design or conduct of this research.

Conflict of interest

None of the authors has any conflict of interest to disclose. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Zhuang
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rong Zhang
    • 2
    • 3
  • Qinmeng Shu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Rui Jiang
    • 1
  • Qing Chang
    • 1
  • Xin Huang
    • 1
  • Chunhui Jiang
    • 1
  • Gezhi Xu
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical CollegeFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Research Center, Eye and ENT Hospital, Shanghai Medical CollegeFudan UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and RestorationFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

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