Changes of TGF-β2, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 levels in the vitreous of patients with high myopia
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To investigate the concentrations of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 in the vitreous of patients with high myopia.
Twenty-six patients with high myopia (HM) who received vitrectomy for macular retinoschisis or macular hole were enrolled in this prospective study. Twenty-six patients with idiopathic macular hole or macular epiretinal membrane were chosen as a control group. Vitreous samples were obtained during the vitrectomy surgery. The levels of TGF-β2、MMP-2、TIMP-2 in the vitreous samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MMP activity was determined by a fluorometric assay.
There was no significant difference in the vitreous level of TGF-β2 between HM (1.64 ± 0.38 ng/ml) and the control group (1.56 ± 0.32 ng/ml, p = 0.56). The vitreous levels of MMP-2 in HM (32.40 ± 14.90 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in the control group (21.42 ± 6.74 ng/ml, p < 0.01). The ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-2 was significantly elevated in the vitreous samples from HM (0.61 ± 0.19), compared to the control group (0.48 ± 0.11, p < 0.05). The MMP activity was also significantly elevated in the vitreous samples from HM (4,030.8 ± 1,257.3 FIU), compared to the control group (3,245.8 ± 835.6 FIU, p < 0.05).
The elevated MMP/TIMP ratio and MMP activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of human high myopia. Large prospective studies are needed to further investigate the effect of MMPs in the pathogenesis of human high myopia.
KeywordsTransforming growth factor β2 Matrix metalloproteinase 2 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 Vitreous High myopia