Advertisement

Global rates of glaucoma surgery

  • Kaweh MansouriEmail author
  • Felipe A. Medeiros
  • Robert N. Weinreb
Glaucoma

Abstract

Purpose

To estimate global rates of glaucoma surgery.

Methods

National glaucoma and national ophthalmology societies were contacted to obtain rates of glaucoma surgery for the preceding 5 years. In countries without a professional society, leading ophthalmologists or non-governmental organizations (NGO) were approached. When available, published literature was used for the estimates. Three levels of evidence were assigned: published data from central government or insurance registries (level I), estimates provided by a national professional society based on survey of members (level II), and estimates based on data from individual glaucoma surgeons (level III). Glaucoma surgical rate (GSR) was defined as the annual number of total glaucoma surgeries performed per million population. Linear regression analysis was performed between GSR and the following parameters: population per ophthalmologist, per capita gross domestic product (GDP), and per capita health expenditures.

Results

Seventy-three glaucoma societies, 35 ophthalmology societies, as well as six NGOs and 37 leading ophthalmologists (11 other countries) were contacted. Data were obtained from 38 countries (10 level I, 23 level II, and 5 lev el III) with a total population of 1.723 billion. The average GSR was 139.2 ± 113.1 (range, 2.9–500.0). There was a positive correlation between GSR and GDP (r2 = 0.309, P = 0.0004) and GSR and the number of ophthalmologists (r2 = 0.476, P < 0.0001).

Conclusion

There is a paucity of data on rates of glaucoma surgery, particularly from developing countries. The new metric GSR may be useful for the allocation of healthcare resources, as well as for planning and monitoring public health interventions in glaucoma.

Keywords

Glaucoma Glaucoma surgical rate Epidemiology Filtering surgery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the gracious efforts of numerous national glaucoma and ophthalmological societies as well as individuals in collection of the data presented in this survey. Also, supported in part by Research to Prevent Blindness, New York, NY.

Financial disclosures

K Mansouri, research and financial support from Sensimed AG; FA Medeiros, research and financial support from Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Pfizer, Inc. Reichert, Inc., Depew, NY, USA; RN Weinreb, research and financial support from Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA, USA; Heidelberg Engineering, GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany; Optovue, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA; Topcon Medical Systems, Inc., Livermore, CA, USA; Nidek, Aichi, Japan.

Financial support

This study was supported by a grant from the Velux Foundation, Zürich, Switzerland (KM).

References

  1. 1.
    Pascolini D, Mariotti SP (2012) Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol 96:614–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Weinreb RN, Khaw PT (2004) Primary open-angle glaucoma. Lancet 363:1711–1720PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya’ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel GP, Mariotti SP (2004) Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ 82:844–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kroese M, Burton H (2003) Primary open angle glaucoma. The need for a consensus case definition. J Epidemiol Community Health 57:752–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shaarawy T (2003) Glaucoma surgery: lest we forget. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 81:553–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shaarawy T (2008) Glaucoma: an exclusive disease? Br J Ophthalmol 92:159–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schmier JK, Covert DW, Lau EC, Robin AL (2009) Trends in annual Medicare expenditures for glaucoma surgical procedures from 1997 to 2006. Arch Ophthalmol 127:900–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Walland MJ (2004) Glaucoma treatment in Australia: changing patterns of therapy 1994–2003. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 32:590–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baudouin C, Rouland JF, Le Pen C (2003) Changes in medical and surgical treatments of glaucoma between 1997 and 2000 in France. Eur J Ophthalmol 13(Suppl 4):S53–S60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    van der Valk R, Schouten JS, Webers CA, Beckers HJ, van Amelsvoort LG, Schouten HJ, Hendrikse F, Prins MH (2005) The impact of a nationwide introduction of new drugs and a treatment protocol for glaucoma on the number of glaucoma surgeries. J Glaucoma 14:239–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rachmiel R, Trope GE, Chipman ML, Gouws P, Buys YM (2006) Effect of medical therapy on glaucoma filtration surgery rates in Ontario. Arch Ophthalmol 124:1472–1477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Keenan TD, Salmon JF, Yeates D, Goldacre MJ (2009) Trends in rates of trabeculectomy in England. Eye (Lond) 23:1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Thomas R, Sekhar GC, Kumar RS (2004) Glaucoma management in developing countries: medical, laser, and surgical options for glaucoma management in countries with limited resources. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 15:127–131PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs PD (2009) World population prospects: the 2008 revision (advanced Excel tables). United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pascolini D, Mariotti SP, Pokharel GP, Pararajasegaram R, Etya’ale D, Negrel AD, Resnikoff S (2004) 2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 11:67–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Campbell RJ, Trope GE, Rachmiel R, Buys YM (2008) Glaucoma laser and surgical procedure rates in Canada: a long-term profile. Can J Ophthalmol 43:449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fraser SG, Wormald RP (2008) Hospital episode statistics and changing trends in glaucoma surgery. Eye (Lond) 22:3–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wishart PK (2009) Interpretation of the glaucoma “landmark studies”. Br J Ophthalmol 93:561–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mendrinos E, Mermoud A, Shaarawy T (2008) Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. Surv Ophthalmol 53:592–630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shaarawy T, Mansouri K, Schnyder C, Ravinet E, Achache F, Mermoud A (2004) Long-term results of deep sclerectomy with collagen implant. J Cataract Refract Surg 30:1225–1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mansouri K, Shaarawy T, Wedrich A, Mermoud A (2006) Comparing polymethylmethacrylate implant with collagen implant in deep sclerectomy: a randomized controlled trial. J Glaucoma 15:264–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mansouri K, Mariani A, Ravinet E (2011) Reconditioning of the trabeculo-Descemet’s membrane with the 532-nm Nd : YAG (SLT) laser after deep sclerectomy. Eye (Lond) 25:1655–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Foster A (2001) Cataract and “Vision 2020—the right to sight” initiative. Br J Ophthalmol 85:635–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sommer A (2012) A simple metric can be a powerful tool for planning and advocacy. Arch Ophthalmol 130:1599–1600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ntim-Amponsah CT, Amoaku WM, Ofosu-Amaah S, Ewusi RK, Idirisuriya-Khair R, Nyatepe-Coo E, Adu-Darko M (2004) Prevalence of glaucoma in an African population. Eye (Lond) 18:491–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Thylefors B, Negrel AD, Pararajasegaram R, Dadzie KY (1995) Global data on blindness. Bull World Health Organ 73:115–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thylefors B, Negrel AD (1994) The global impact of glaucoma. Bull World Health Organ 72:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pascolini D, Mariotti SP (2012) Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol 96(5):614–618. doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2011-300539 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Quigley HA, Broman AT (2006) The number of people with glaucoma worldwide in 2010 and 2020. Br J Ophthalmol 90:262–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mansouri K, Orguel S, Mermoud A, Haefliger I, Flammer J, Ravinet E, Shaarawy T (2008) Quality of diurnal intraocular pressure control in primary open-angle patients treated with latanoprost compared with surgically treated glaucoma patients: a prospective trial. Br J Ophthalmol 92:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Medeiros FA, Pinheiro A, Moura FC, Leal BC, Susanna R Jr (2002) Intraocular pressure fluctuations in medical versus surgically treated glaucomatous patients. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 18:489–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    King AJ, Stead RE, Rotchford AP (2011) Treating patients presenting with advanced glaucoma—should we reconsider current practice? Br J Ophthalmol 95:1185–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaweh Mansouri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Felipe A. Medeiros
    • 1
  • Robert N. Weinreb
    • 1
  1. 1.Hamilton Glaucoma Center and the Shiley Eye Center, Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Glaucoma sector, Department of OphthalmologyGeneva University HospitalsGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Hamilton Glaucoma Center, Department of OphthalmologyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations