Journal of Neurology

, Volume 266, Issue 6, pp 1429–1438 | Cite as

Heterogeneity in costs and prognosis for acute ischemic stroke treatment by comorbidities

  • Euna Han
  • Tae Hyun Kim
  • Heejo Koo
  • Joonsang Yoo
  • Ji Hoe Heo
  • Hyo Suk NamEmail author
Original Communication



Comorbidities are prevalent among stroke patients. The current study assesses the variations in cost and stroke prognosis by concurrent comorbidities in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


The Charlson comorbidity index was used as the composite comorbidity level (0 none, 1 mild, 2 moderate, and ≥ 3 severe). Outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months and 1-year mortality and stroke recurrence. We utilized a multivariate log-normal model for cost, a proportional Cox hazards model for outcomes, and a decision analytic model for the excess cost per unit change in outcome probability compared with the no-comorbidity group.


A total of 3605 consecutive patients were enrolled. At 3 months, the severe comorbidity group was 0.32 times less likely to have mRS ≤ 2, and were 4.86 times more likely to die from stroke than the no-comorbidity group. Within 1 year, the severe comorbidity group showed 10.36 and 3.38 times higher likelihoods of death from stroke and stroke recurrence than the no-comorbidity group. The incremental cost was 4376 in 3 months and 7074 USD in 1 year for the severe comorbidity group, and 985 in 3 months and 1265 USD in 1 year for the mild comorbidity group compared to the no-comorbidity group.


The excess cost per unit increase of a short-term good prognosis was largest for the severe comorbidity group. Patients with severe comorbidities showed poor prognosis and large health expenditure. Assessing comorbidity level is crucial for better prediction of outcomes and excess cost.


Comorbidity Excess cost Prognosis Ischemic stroke Heterogeneity 



This research was supported by a Grant from the Korea Health Technology Research and Development Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant number: HC15C1056). Research support from the Korea National Research Foundation (Grant number: 2019R1A2C1003259, 2016R1C1B2016028, 2017R1A2B4003373) is also gratefully acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The institutional review board of Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System, approved this study and waived the patients’ informed consent because of a retrospective design and the observational nature of this study (4-2015-1196).

Supplementary material

415_2019_9278_MOESM1_ESM.docx (17 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 KB)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Pharmacy and Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical SciencesYonsei UniversityIncheonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Graduate School of Public Health and Institute of Health Services ResearchYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of NeurologyYonsei University College of MedicineSeoulSouth Korea

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