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Alcohol consumption and risk for Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis


The possibility that alcohol consumption should be considered as a “protective factor” for Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been suggested by several case–control studies. However, other case–control studies and data from prospective longitudinal cohort studies have been inconclusive. We carried out a systematic review which included all the eligible studies published on PD risk related with alcohol consumption, and conducted a meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The systematic review was performed using two databases, and the meta-analysis of the eligible studies with the software Meta-Disc1.1.1. Heterogeneity between studies was tested with the Q-statistic. The meta-analysis included 26 eligible retrospective case–control studies (8798 PD patients, 15,699 controls) and 5 prospective longitudinal cohort studies (2404 PD patients, 600,592 controls) on alcohol consumption and PD. In retrospective case–control studies the frequency of PD patients never drinkers was higher and the frequency of heavy + moderate drinkers was lower [diagnostic OR (95% CI) 1.33(1.20–1.48) and 0.74(0.64–0.85)], respectively, when compared to healthy controls. In contrast, in prospective studies, the differences were not significant with the exception of a trend towards a higher frequency of non-drinkers in PD women and a significantly lower frequency of moderate + heavy drinkers in PD men in those studies which stratified data by gender. The present meta-analysis suggests an inverse association between alcohol consumption and PD, which is supported by the results of case–control studies but not clearly by prospective ones.

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We recognize the effort of the personnel of the Library of Hospital Universitario “Príncipe de Asturias”, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain), who achieved an important number of papers for us. Professor James McCue revised in detail the quality of the English language. The work of the authors was supported in part by Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain (Grant PI15/00303), and Junta de Extremadura, Mérida, Spain (Grants GR15026 and IB16170). Partially funded with FEDER funds.

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Correspondence to Félix Javier Jiménez-Jiménez.

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Jiménez-Jiménez, F.J., Alonso-Navarro, H., García-Martín, E. et al. Alcohol consumption and risk for Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurol 266, 1821–1834 (2019).

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  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Meta-analysis
  • Risk factors