Phenytoin: 80 years young, from epilepsy to breast cancer, a remarkable molecule with multiple modes of action
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In 1908 phenytoin (5,5-diphenylhydantoin) was first synthesized as a barbiturate derivative in Germany by professor Heinrich Biltz (1865–1943) and subsequently resynthesized by an American chemist of the pharmaceutical company Parke-Davis in 1923 in Detroit. Screening phenytoin did not reveal comparable sedative side effects as barbiturates and, thus, Parke-Davis discarded this compound as a useful drug. In 1936, phenytoin’s anticonvulsive properties were identified via a new animal model for convulsive disorders, developed by Putnam and Merritt, who also evaluated its clinical value in a number of patients in the period 1937–1940. For many diseases, mechanism of action of phenytoin remains obscure. The voltage-gated sodium channel was and is generally regarded as the main target to explain phenytoin’s activity as an anticonvulsant and an anti-arrhythmic drug. This target, however, does not explain many of the other clinical properties of phenytoin. We will explore a number of original articles on phenytoin published in its 80 years history and give extra attention to the various hypothesis and experiments done to elucidate its mechanisms of action. Phenytoin has been explored in over 100 different disorders; the last two promising indications tested in the clinic are breast cancer and optic neuritis. Most probably, there are multiple targets active for these various disorders, and the insight into which targets are relevant is still very incomplete. It is remarkable that many pharmacological studies tested one dose only, mostly 50 or 100 μM, doses which most probably are higher than the non-plasma bound phenytoin plasma levels obtained during treatment.
KeywordsNeuropathic pain Phenytoin History Mechanism of action Sodium channels
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors are holders of two patents: Topical phenytoin for use in the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain and topical pharmaceutical composition containing phenytoin and a (co-)analgesic for the treatment of chronic pain.
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