Acute vestibular syndrome: a critical review and diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of peripheral versus central aetiologies in the emergency department

Abstract

Almost 20 % of cerebral ischaemic strokes occur in the posterior circulation. Estimates are that 20 % of these patients present with isolated vertigo. In approximately one-sixth to one-third of these patients, this symptom is wrongly diagnosed to be peripheral vestibular in origin. As a result, these missed stroke patients are withheld from therapeutic and secondary prophylactic treatment, which may result in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. We therefore propose a diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) patients based on a critical review of the available literature.

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Correspondence to J. Venhovens.

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Venhovens, J., Meulstee, J. & Verhagen, W.I.M. Acute vestibular syndrome: a critical review and diagnostic algorithm concerning the clinical differentiation of peripheral versus central aetiologies in the emergency department. J Neurol 263, 2151–2157 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8081-8

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Keywords

  • Acute vestibular syndrome (AVS)
  • HINTS
  • Head impulse test (HIT)
  • Vertigo
  • Vertebrobasilar stroke