GBA mutations are among the most common genetic risk factors for Parkinson disease (PD) worldwide. We aimed to identify genetic modifiers of the age at onset (AAO) in GBA-associated PD. The study included a genome-wide discovery phase, including a cohort of 79 patients with the GBA p.N370S mutation, and candidate validation and replication analyses of 8 SNPs in patients with mild (n = 113) and severe (n = 41) GBA mutations. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix human SNP 6.0 array and TaqMan assays. In the genome-wide phase, none of the SNPs passed the genome-wide significance threshold. Eight SNPs were selected for further analysis from the top hits. In all GBA-associated PD patients (n = 153), the BIN1 rs13403026 minor allele was associated with an older AAO (12.4 ± 5.9 years later, p = 0.0001), compared to patients homozygous for the major allele. Furthermore, the AAO was 10.7 ± 6.8 years later in patients with mild GBA mutations, (p = 0.005, validation group), and 17.1 ± 2.5 years later in patients with severe GBA mutations (p = 0.01, replication). Our results suggest that alterations in the BIN1 locus, previously associated with Alzheimer disease, may modify the AAO of GBA-associated PD. More studies in other populations are required to examine the role of BIN1-related variants in GBA-associated PD.
BIN1 GBA Genetics Parkinson disease
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This work was supported by Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Grant of Excellence, by the Kahn Foundation, by the Chief Scientist of the Israeli Ministry of Health (Grant No. 3-4893), by the Legacy Heritage Biomedical Science Partnership Program of the Israel Science Foundation (Grant No.1922/08), and by the Michael J. Fox Foundation.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
All participants signed an informed consent before entering the study. The Institutional and National Supreme Helsinki Committees for Genetic Studies approved the study protocols and the informed consents, which have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.
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