Advertisement

Journal of Neurology

, Volume 257, Issue 10, pp 1628–1632 | Cite as

“Habit” gambling behaviour caused by ischemic lesions affecting the cognitive territories of the basal ganglia

  • Emmanuel Cognat
  • Julien Lagarde
  • Caroline Decaix
  • Elodie Hainque
  • Louisa Azizi
  • Veronique Gaura-Schmidt
  • Valerie Mesnage
  • Richard Levy
Original Communication

Abstract

We report the case of a patient suffering from sudden apathy and pathological gambling-like behaviour after bilateral ischemic lesions involving the dorsal portion of the head of the caudate nuclei and adjacent anterior limb of the internal capsules. This is the first report of the association of an apathy and abnormal gambling behaviour following a stroke affecting sub-cortical structures. Although the location of the lesions, affecting the dorsal striatum, may explain the emergence of an apathetic state, it is, however, at first sight, not easy to explain the gambling behaviour because the patient was normal in tests evaluating sensitivity to reward, and no radiological abnormality was found in the cortical-sub-cortical system of reward. It is proposed that, for this patient, the mechanism of maladaptive gambling behaviour was the development of a routine behaviour related to the patient’s cognitive inertia, a mechanism different from the changes in reward sensitivity observed after damage to the orbital ventral prefrontal–ventral striatum system or in dopamine dysregulation syndrome in Parkinson’s disease.

Keywords

Basal ganglia Caudate nucleus Stroke Apathy Pathological gambling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Mrs. Kristine Smith for editorial suggestions.

Conflict of interest statement

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Bhatia KP, Marsden CD (1994) The behavioural and motor consequences of focal lesions of the basal ganglia in man. Brain 117:859–876CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alexander GE, Delong MR, Strick PL (1986) Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annual Rev Neurosci 9:357–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Middleton FA, Strick PL (2002) Basal-ganglia ‘projections’ to the prefrontal cortex of the primate. Cereb Cortex 12:926–935CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Haber SN (2003) The primate basal ganglia: parallel and integrative networks. J Chem Neuroanat 26:317–330CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Calzavara R, Mailly P, Haber SN (2007) Relationship between the corticostriatal terminals from areas 9 and 46, and those from area 8A, dorsal and rostral premotor cortex and area 24c: an anatomical substrate for cognition to action. Eur J Neurosci 26:2005–2024CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Divac I, Rosvold HE, Scwarcbart MK (1967) Behavioural effects of selective ablation of the caudate nucleus. J Comp Physiol Psych 63:184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Richfield EK, Twyman R, Berent S (1987) Neurological syndrome following bilateral damage to the head of the caudate nuclei. Ann Neurol 22:768–771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mendez MF, Adams NL, Lewandowski KS (1989) Neurobehavioral changes associated with caudate lesions. Neurology 39:349–354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Caplan LR, Schmahmann JD, Kase CS, Feldmann E, Baquis G, Greenberg JP, Gorelick PB, Helgason C, Hier DB (1990) Caudate infarcts. Arch Neurol 47:133–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stern CE, Passingham RE (1994) The nucleus accumbens in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): I. The organization of behaviour. Behav Brain Res 61:9–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kumral E, Evyapan D, Balkir K (1999) Acute caudate vascular lesions. Stroke 30:100–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calder AJ, Keane J, Lawrence AD, Manes F (2004) Impaired recognition of anger following damage to the ventral striatum. Brain 127:1958–1969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Narumoto J, Matsushima N, Oka S, Shimizu H, Kooguchi Y, Kitabayashi Y, Kunizawa M, Ueda H, Fukui K (2005) Neurobehavioral changes associated with bilateral caudate nucleus infarctions. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 59:109–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grober E, Buschke H (1987) Genuine memory deficits in dementia. Dev Neuropsychol. 3:13–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B (2000) The FAB: a frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology 55:1621–1626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Starkstein SE, Mayberg HS, Preziosi TJ, Andrezejewski P, Leiguarda R, Robinson RG (1992) Reliability, validity, and clinical correlates of apathy in Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 4:134–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR (2000) Emotion, decision making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 10:295–307CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Selemon LD, Goldman-Rakic PS (1985) Longitudinal topography and interdigitation of corticostriatal projections in the rhesus monkeys. J Neurosci 5:776–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Levy R, Dubois B (2006) Apathy and the functional anatomy of the prefrontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. Cereb Cortex 16:916–928CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision, 4th ednGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Eslinger PJ, Damasio AR (1985) Severe disturbance of higher cognition after bilateral frontal lobe ablation: patient EVR. Neurology 35:1731–1741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O’Sullivan SS, Evans AH, Lees AJ (2009) Dopamine dysregulation syndrome: an overview of its epidemiology, mechanisms and management. CNS Drugs 23:157–170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Potenza MN (2008) Review the neurobiology of pathological gambling and drug addiction: an overview and new findings. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 363(1507):3181–3189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emmanuel Cognat
    • 1
  • Julien Lagarde
    • 1
  • Caroline Decaix
    • 1
  • Elodie Hainque
    • 1
  • Louisa Azizi
    • 2
  • Veronique Gaura-Schmidt
    • 3
  • Valerie Mesnage
    • 1
  • Richard Levy
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.AP-HP, Service de NeurologieHopital Saint-AntoineParis Cedex 12France
  2. 2.AP-HP, Service de RadiologieHopital Saint-AntoineParisFrance
  3. 3.AP-HP, Service de Médecine NucléaireHopital Saint-AntoineParisFrance
  4. 4.Centre de Recherche de l’Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle EpinièreUniversité Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6ParisFrance
  5. 5.Inserm, U975ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations