The facial analysis permits many investigations, some of the most important of which are craniofacial identification, facial recognition, and age and sex estimation. In forensics, photo-anthropometry describes the study of facial growth and allows the identification of patterns in facial skull development, for example, by using a group of cephalometric landmarks to estimate anthropological information. Previous works presented, as indirect applications, the use of photo-anthropometric measurements to estimate anthropological information such as age and sex. In several areas, automation of manual procedures has achieved advantages over and similar measurement confidence as a forensic expert. This manuscript presents an approach using photo-anthropometric indexes, generated from frontal faces cephalometric landmarks of the Brazilian population, to create an artificial neural network classifier that allows the estimation of anthropological information, in this specific case age and sex. This work is focused on four tasks: (i) sex estimation on ages from 5 to 22 years old, evaluating the interference of age on sex estimation; (ii) age estimation from photo-anthropometric indexes for four age intervals (1 year, 2 years, 4 years, and 5 years); (iii) age group estimation for thresholds of over 14 and over 18 years old; and; (iv) the provision of a new data set, available for academic purposes only, with a large and complete set of facial photo-anthropometric points marked and checked by forensic experts, measured from over 18,000 faces of individuals from Brazil over the last 4 years. The proposed binary classifier obtained significant results, using this new data set, for the sex estimation of individuals over 14 years old, achieving accuracy values higher than 0.85 by the F1 measure. For age estimation, the accuracy results are 0.72 for the F1 measure with an age interval of 5 years. For the age group estimation, the F1 measures of accuracy are higher than 0.93 and 0.83 for thresholds of 14 and 18 years, respectively.
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When the term “avoiding” is used throughout the manuscript, it means information from a specific class was not used in the proposed tests.
The data set and the developed machine learning model will be available to download soon, after the review process is completed, in attendance of the journal’s submission criteria.
All boxplots are available in the specific Section of the Supplementary Material files (File PAIs_sex_age_boxplots_supplemental.pdf).
See Fig. 2, for example, where outliers can be identified as the points well above or well below the boxes in the boxplot.
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The authors would like to acknowledge the team of Federal Police of Brazil, especially the forensic experts of the National Institute of Criminalistic.
This work was conducted with financial support from Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), Edital DPI UnB # 04/2019 (Researcher Support), and Federal Police of Brazil (Pro-Forenses 25/2014 CAPES Finance Code 001).
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
17017213.0.0000.5440 (Local Committee of ethics in human research)
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Appendix A: Photo-anthropometric indexes
Appendix B: Confusion matrices
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Porto, L.F., Lima, L.N.C., Franco, A. et al. Estimating sex and age from a face: a forensic approach using machine learning based on photo-anthropometric indexes of the Brazilian population. Int J Legal Med 134, 2239–2259 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02346-5
- Artificial neural network
- Facial photo-anthropometry
- Computer vision
- Age and sex recognition