Forensic performance of 30 InDels included in the Investigator DIPplex system in Miao population and comprehensive genetic relationship in China

  • Pengyu Chen
  • Li Luo
  • Hongyan Gao
  • Jian Wu
  • Yudan Wang
  • Guanglin HeEmail author
  • Yanyan HanEmail author
Population Data


Binary markers of insertion and deletion (InDel) play an important role in forensic personal identification, parentage testing, and individual ancestry inference. We first genotyped 30 InDels included in the Investigator DIPplex in 403 unrelated healthy Zunyi Miao people and analyzed the genetic polymorphisms, as well as explored the genetic relationship between Miao and 32 Chinese reference populations. No departures from the HWE were observed. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were 0.99999999998 and 0.9884, respectively. Forensic parameters demonstrated that 30 markers are polymorphic and informative in the Zunyi Miao population and can be used as a tool for forensic personal identification and parentage testing. Allele frequency divergence analysis found that 12 out of 30 displaying high allele frequency difference between Turkic-speaking populations and other Chinese populations can be used as candidates of ancestry informative markers for ancestry inference of sub-population in East Asia. Population genetic parameters in the comprehensive population comparison among 33 Chinese populations indicated that our studied Hmong-Mien-speaking Miao has a close genetic relationship with geographically adjacent Enshi Tujia and genetically differentiate from Turkic-speaking populations.


InDels Miao Forensic genetics Individual identification Parentage testing 


Funding information

This study received the support of grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81401562) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (2012017yjsy187).

Compliance with ethical standards

This study had been approved by the Ethics Committee of the Zunyi medical university. Informed consent was obtained from volunteers before sample collection.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Supplementary material

414_2019_2057_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary Table 1 Allele frequency and corresponding forensic parameters of 30 Indels in the Zunyi Miao population (XLSX 13 kb)
414_2019_2057_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Supplementary Table 2 The p values of Linkage Disequilibrium testing of 30 Indels in the Miao population (XLSX 13 kb)
414_2019_2057_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (18 kb)
Supplementary Table 3 The pairwise Nei’s genetic distances between Zunyi Miao and 32 Chinese reference populations (XLSX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Forensic ExpertiseAffiliated hospital of Zunyi Medical UniversityZunyiChina
  2. 2.School of Forensic MedicineZunyi Medical UniversityZunyiChina
  3. 3.Institute of Forensic Medicine, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences & Forensic MedicineSichuan UniversityChengduChina
  4. 4.School of Public HealthZunyi Medical UniversityZunyiChina

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