International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 133, Issue 3, pp 785–788 | Cite as

Population data of 23 Y STRs from Manchu population of Liaoning Province, Northeast China

  • Atif Adnan
  • Kadirya Kasim
  • Allah Rakha
  • Anam Noor
  • Ammar Sabir Cheema
  • Sibte Hadi
  • Jiaxin XingEmail author
Population Data


Mongol-like-horsemen-turned-merchants from Manchuria are known as Manchus, originally their homeland was centered around what is nowadays the city of Shenyang in Northeast China. Previously, worldwide analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for 23 STR loci and Y-STR databases with PowerPlex® Y23 System (Promega Corporation Madison, USA) kit were created with collaborative efforts, but Manchu population data was missing. In current study, PowerPlex® Y23 System loci were examined in 328 unrelated Manchu male individuals from Xiuyan and Huanren Manchu autonomous counties in Liaoning province, to calculate the forensic parameters of the 23 STR loci. A total of 323 different haplotypes were observed on these 23 Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.3820 (DYS391) to 0.9696 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9999 ± 0.0002 at PowerPlex® Y23 System. Rst pairwise analyses, multidimensional scaling plot, and linear discriminatory analysis showed the genetic structure of Manchu population was significantly different from some of Chinese populations like Tibetan and Uyghur. Results of our study showed that PowerPlex® Y23 System marker set provided substantially stronger discriminatory power in Manchu population of China.


PowerPlex® Y23 System Forensic Manchu, Shenyang, China 


Funding information

This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of P. R. China (NSFC, No. 81671872), Ministry of Finance, P. R. China.

Compliance with ethical standards

All participants gave their informed consent in writing after the study aims and procedures were carefully explained to them in their own language. The study was approved by the ethical review board of the China Medical University, Shenyang Liaoning Province, People’s Republic of China, and in accordance with the standards of the Declaration of Helsinki.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

414_2018_1957_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (589 kb)
Figure S1 The Manchu population of Liaoning (shaded red) within the People’s Republic of China (JPG 589 kb)
414_2018_1957_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (49 kb)
Table S1 (XLSX 49 kb)
414_2018_1957_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Table S2 (XLSX 14 kb)
414_2018_1957_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (13 kb)
Table S3 (XLSX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forensic Genetics and Biology, School of Forensic MedicineChina Medical UniversityShenyangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Department of Forensic SciencesUniversity of Health SciencesLahorePakistan
  3. 3.School of Forensic and Investigative SciencesUniversity of Central LancashirePrestonUK

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