In the present study, the genetic variations of 17 X-STR markers (DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS7133, GATA31E08, GATA172D05, DXS6801, DXS7423, DXS6809, DXS6799, DXS7132, DXS9902, DXS6800, DXS6789, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS6807, and DXS6803) were analyzed in 139 unrelated individuals in Nabeul, aiming to perform an X-STR database for anthropological and forensic purposes. Our results indicate that DXS6809 was the most polymorphic locus, whereas DXS6807 was the least informative marker. In addition, the obtained values for the statistical parameters of forensic interest, i.e., the power of discrimination in males (PDM) and females (PDF), as well as the mean exclusion chance in duos (MECD) and trios (MECT) have demonstrated that this panel of 17 X-STRs is highly informative and useful for forensic application and anthropological research. Additionally, pairwise genetic distances based on FST were calculated between Nabeul population and other populations extracted from the literature. Genetic distances were represented in a non-metric MDS plot and clustering of populations according to their geographic locations and their historical relationship was detected.
Nabeul city Tunisia X-chromosome database Short tandem repeat Forensic application
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors are grateful to Maite Alvarez, PhD for her technical and human support provided by the DNA Bank Service (SGIker) of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) and European funding (ERDF and ESF). The authors also thank Dr. Asmahan Bekada for providing X-STR data.
Funds were provided by the Basque Government (Grupo Consolidado IT998-16) and the Tunisian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.
Compliance with ethical standards
All samples were obtained from volunteer donors under informed consent, following the ethical standards of Helsinki Declaration. The current study was approved by the local Ethics Committee of Charles Nicolle Hospital in Tunis.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Aounallah S (2004) Le Cap Bon, jardin de Carthage. Recherches d’épigraphie et d'histoire romano-africaines. Ausonius Paris, BordeauxGoogle Scholar
Gomes I, Alves C, Maxzud K, Pereira R, Prata MJ, Sánchez-Diz P et al (2009) Analysis of 10 X-STRs in three African populations. Forensic Sci Int Genet 1:208–211Google Scholar
Bekada A, Benhamamouch S, Boudjema A, Fodil M, Menegon S, Torre C, Robino C (2010) Analysis of 21 X-chromosomal STRs in an Algerian population sample. Int J Legal Med 124:287–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Pasino S, Caratti S, Del Pero M, Santovito A, Torre C, Robino C (2011) Allele and haplotype diversity of X chromosomal STRs in Ivory Coast. Int J Legal Med 125:749–752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Pinto N, Gusmão L, Amorim A (2011) X-chromosome markers in kinship testing: a generalisation of the IBD approach identifying situations where their contribution is crucial. Forensic Sci Int Genet 5:27–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Krawczak M (2007) Kinship testing with X-chromosomal markers: mathematical and statistical issues. Forensic Sci Int Genet 1:111–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
TillmarAO KD, Butler JM, Parson W, Prinz M, Schneider PM et al (2017) DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic genetics (ISFG): guidelines on the use of X-STRs in kinship analysis. Forensic Sci Int Genet 29:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Szibor R, Krawczak M, Hering S, Edelmann J, Kuhlisch E (2003) Use of X-linked markers for forensic purposes. Int J Legal Med 117:67–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
Liu Q-L, Wang J-Z, Quan L, Zhao H, Wu Y-D, Huang X-L, Lu DJ (2013) Allele and haplotype diversity of 26 X-STR loci in four nationality populations from China. PLoS One 8:e65570CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Prieto-Fernández E, Baeta M, Núñez C, Zarrabeitia MT, Herrera RJ, Builes JJ, de Pancorbo MM (2016) Development of a new highly efficient 17 X-STR multiplex for forensic purposes. Electrophoresis 37:1651–1658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Prieto-Fernández E, Núñez C, Baeta M, Jiménez-Moreno S, Martínez-Jarreta B, de Pancorbo MM (2016) Forensic Spanish allele and haplotype database for a 17 X-STR panel. Forensic Sci Int Genet 24:120–123CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Antunez de Mayolo G, Antunez de Mayolo A, Antunez de Mayolo P, Papiha SS, Hammer M, Yunis JJ et al (2002) Phylogenetics of worldwide human populations as determined by polymorphic Alu insertions. Electrophoresis 23:3346–3356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinformatics Online 1:47–50Google Scholar
Hammer Ø, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001) Past: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electron 4:9–17Google Scholar
Kishida T, Wang W, Fukuda M, Tamaki Y (1997) Duplex PCR of the Y-27H39 and HPRT loci with reference to Japanese population data on the HPRT locus. Nihon Hoigaku Zasshi 51:67–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
Desmarais D, Zhong Y, Chakraborty R, Perreault C, Busque L (1998) Development of a highly polymorphic STR marker for identity testing purposes at the human androgen receptor gene(HUMARA). J Forensic Sci 43:1046–1049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Szibor R, Hering S, Edelmann J (2006) A new web site compiling forensic chromosome X research is now online. Int J Legal Med 120:252–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Egeland T, Kling D, Mostad P (2016) Relationship inference with familias and R: statistical methods in forensic genetics. Academic Press, London, Elsevier LtdGoogle Scholar
Kling D, Tillmar AO, Egeland T, Mostad P (2015) A general model for likelihood computations of genetic marker data accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium, and mutations. Int J Legal Med 129:943–954CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Szibor R, Hering S, Kuhlisch E, Plate I, Demberger S, Krawczak M, Edelmann J (2005) Haplotyping of STR cluster DXS6801-DXS6809-DXS6789 on Xq21 provides a powerful tool for kinship testing. Int J Legal Med 119:363–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Krüger J, Fuhrmann W, Lichte KH, Steffens C (1968) ZurVerwendung der sauren Erythrocytenphosphatasebei der Vaterschaftsbegutachtung. Dtsch Z Gerichtl Med 64:127–146Google Scholar
Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Chennakrishnaiah S, Zemni R, Grinberg S, Herrera RJ, Benammar-Elgaaied A (2012) Sousse, Tunisia: tumultuous history and high Y-STR diversity. Electrophoresis 33:3555–3563CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Haber M, Martínez-Cruz B, Zalloua P, BenammarElgaaied A, Comas D (2013) Genome-wide and paternal diversity reveal a recent origin of human populations in North Africa. PLoS One 8:e80293CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Fadhlaoui-Zid K, Garcia-Bertrand R, Alfonso-Sánchez MA, Zemni R, Benammar-Elgaaied A, Herrera RJ (2015) Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa. J Hum Genet 60:41–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Poetsch M, Knop A, El-Mostaqim D, Rakotomavo Nv, Wurmb-Schwark N (2011) Allele frequencies of 11 X-chromosomal loci of two population samples from Africa. Int J Legal Med 125:307–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Prieto-Fernández E, Díaz-de Usera A, Baeta M, Núñez C, Chbel F, Nadifi S, Rouault K, Férec C, Hardiman O, Pinheiro F, de Pancorbo MM (2017) A genetic overview of Atlantic coastal populations from Europe and North West Africa based on a17 X-STR panel. Forensic Sci Int Genet 27:167–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar