International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 130, Issue 3, pp 711–721 | Cite as

The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers’ ability to ride a bicycle

  • Benno HartungEmail author
  • Holger Schwender
  • Eckhard H. Roth
  • Florence Hellen
  • Nona Mindiashvili
  • Annette Rickert
  • Stefanie Ritz-Timme
  • Almut Grieser
  • Fabio Monticelli
  • Thomas Daldrup
Original Article


To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.


Cannabis THC Bicycle Ability to ride Ability to drive Driving under the influence DUI Cannabis influence factor CIF 



This study was sponsored by VEGaS e. V. (Verein zur Erforschung der Gefahren durch Drogen und andere Rauschmittel im Straßenverkehr).

Compliance with ethical standards

Ethical standards

The experiments of this study comply with the current German laws. The study protocol was pre-approved by the ethics committee of the University Hospital Düsseldorf.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benno Hartung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Holger Schwender
    • 2
  • Eckhard H. Roth
    • 3
  • Florence Hellen
    • 4
  • Nona Mindiashvili
    • 1
  • Annette Rickert
    • 1
  • Stefanie Ritz-Timme
    • 1
  • Almut Grieser
    • 5
  • Fabio Monticelli
    • 6
  • Thomas Daldrup
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Legal MedicineUniversity Hospital DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Institute of MathematicsHeinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Augenzentrum FriedrichstadtDüsseldorfGermany
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryHeinrich-Heine-UniversityDüsseldorfGermany
  5. 5.Department of AnaesthesiologyUniversity Hospital DüsseldorfDüsseldorfGermany
  6. 6.Institute of Legal MedicineParis-Lodron-UniversitySalzburgAustria

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