Advertisement

International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 130, Issue 2, pp 405–409 | Cite as

A methoxydiphenidine-impaired driver

  • Nicole Stachel
  • Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer
  • Gisela Skopp
Case Report

Abstract

Methoxydiphenidine (MXP) was first reported in 1989 as a dissociative anesthetic but did not enter the market for pharmaceuticals. The substance re-appeared in 2013 as a new psychoactive substance. A case of driving under the influence of MXP is reported. The concentration of MXP has been determined from a serum sample (57 ng/mL) by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry following liquid-liquid extraction. In addition, amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, and its major metabolite were present in concentrations of 111, 28, and 3 ng/mL, respectively. The subject presented with amnesia, out-of-body experiences, bizarre behavior, and decreased motor abilities. At present, information on human toxicity of MXP is not available. MXP is comparable in structure as well as in action at the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor to phencyclidine or ketamine. Therefore, it is likely that MXP exerts similar severe psychotropic action in man. However, there is no information on the duration and intensity of MXP’s impairing effects, the interpretation of a particular concentration in the blood or serum, and its detectability in routine drug screenings. Confirmation analysis may be confined to cases where the police has specific intelligence that points to MXP use.

Keywords

Methoxydiphenidine Analysis Driving under the influence Dissociative drugs 

References

  1. 1.
    European Patent 0346791 B1, Gray NM, Cheng BK (1994) 1,2-Diarylethylamines for treatment of neurotoxic injury; assigned to Searle & Co.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lodge D, Mercier MS (2015) Ketamine and phencyclidine: the good, the bad and the unexpected. Br J Pharmacol. doi: 10.1111/bph.13222 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Helander A, Beck O, Bäckberg M (2015) Intoxications by the dissociative new psychoactive substances diphenidine and methoxphenidine. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 53:446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hofer KE, Degrandi C, Müller DM, Zürrer-Härdi U, Wahl S, Rauber-Lüthy C, Ceschi A (2014) Acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of the novel dissociative psychoactive substance methoxyphenidine. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 52:1288–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Elliott SP, Brandt SD, Wallach J, Morris H, Kavanagh PV (2015) First reported fatalities associated with the ‘research chemical’ 2-methoxydiphenidine. J Anal Toxicol 39:287–293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jenkins AJ (2007) Pharmacokinetics: drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. In: Karch SB (ed) Drug abuse handbook, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 169–170Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jones AW, Karlsson L (2005) Relation between blood- and urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine. Hum Exp Toxicol 24:615–622CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    de la Torre R, Farre M, Ortuno J, Mas M, Brenneisen R, Roset PN, Segura J, Cami J (2000) Non-linear pharmacokinetics of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) in humans. Br J Clin Pharmacol 49:104–109PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kunsman GW, Levine B, Costantino A, Smith ML (1997) Phencyclidine blood concentrations in DRE cases. J Anal Toxicol 21:498–502Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Burch HJ, Clarke EJ, Hubbard AM, Scott-Ham M (2013) Concentrations of drugs determined in blood samples collected from suspected drugged drivers in England and Wales. J Forensic Legal Med 20:278–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lim D (2003) Ketamine associated psychedelic effects and dependence. Singapore Med J 44:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baumeister D, Tojo LM, Tracy DK (2015) Legal highs: staying on top of the flood of novel psychoactive substances. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 5:97–132PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Domino EF (1992) Chemical dissociation of human awareness: focus on non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists. J Psychopharmacol 6:418–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Schifano F, Orsolini L, Papanti GD, Corkery JM (2015) Novel psychoactive substances of interest for psychiatry. World Psychiatry 14:15–26PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    www.bluelight.org/vb/threads. Accessed 8 Aug. 2015
  16. 16.
    Giorgetti R, Marcotulli D, Tagliabracci A, Schifano F (2015) Effects of ketamine on psychomotor, sensory and cognitive functions relevant for driving ability. Forensic Sci Int 252:127–142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (2014) Drug use, impaired driving and traffic accidents. 2nd Edition, Luxembourg Publications Office, European Union, ISBN: 978-92-9168-687-2Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Krystal JH, Bennet A, Abi-Saab D, Belger A, Karper LP, D’Souza DC, Lipschitz D, Abi-Dargham A, Charney DS (2000) Dissociation of ketamine effects on rule acquisition and rule implementation: possible relevance to NMDA receptor contributions to executive cognitive functions. Biol Psychiatry 47:137–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cheng WC, Ng KM, Chan KK, Mok VK, Cheung BK (2007) Roadside detection of impairment under the influence of ketamine—evaluation of ketamine impairment symptoms with reference to its concentration in oral fluid and urine. Forensic Sci Int 170:51–58CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Poklis A, Maginn D, Barr JL (1987) Drug findings in ‘driving under the influence of drugs’ cases: a problem of illicit drug use. Drug Alcohol Depend 20:57–62CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Soderstrom CA, Dischinger PC, Kerns TJ, Trifillis A (1995) Marijuana and other drug use among automobile and motorcycle drivers treated at a trauma center. Accid Anal Prev 27:131–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Stachel
    • 1
  • Andrea Jacobsen-Bauer
    • 2
  • Gisela Skopp
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Legal and Traffic MedicineUniversity HospitalHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.State Criminal Police Office Baden-WürttembergStuttgartGermany

Personalised recommendations