Advertisement

International Journal of Legal Medicine

, Volume 123, Issue 5, pp 381–385 | Cite as

A regression model applied to gender-specific ethanol elimination rates from blood and breath measurements in non-alcoholics

  • A. DettlingEmail author
  • S. Witte
  • G. Skopp
  • M. Graw
  • H. Th. Haffner
Original Article

Abstract

As elimination rates for alcohol are suggested to be gender specific, a novel regression model has been applied to estimate these rates for both men and women using experimentally measured data from 81 female and 96 male volunteers described in previous papers. Breath alcohol measurements were done with the Alcotest 7110 Evidential device and were coupled with concomitant sampling of venous blood. Statistical analyses involved use of a mixed linear model for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), respectively. The model takes regression lines for each test subject into account with an individual starting value (2 h after the end of drinking) and with an individual alcohol elimination rate per hour (coincidental effects). Further, the data was modeled so that an average alcohol elimination rate per hour could be estimated separately for both genders (constant effects). This enables us to methodically correctly estimate the back calculation. The elimination rates β 60, which can be used for minimum and maximum back calculations for the BAC, were 0.115 g/kg/h and 0.260 g/kg/h, respectively, for women and 0.096 g/kg/h and 0.241 g/kg/h, respectively, for men. These figures widely deviate from gender-unspecific values commonly used in Germany (0.1 and 0.2 g/kg/h, respectively). The corresponding values for the BrAC were 0.061 mg/l/h and 0.124 mg/l/h for women and 0.049 mg/l/h and 0.112 mg/l/h for men. The probability of an over- or underestimation of the abovementioned extreme values is 0.3% in each case.

Keywords

Breath alcohol concentration Blood alcohol concentration Regression analysis Back calculations 

References

  1. 1.
    Ammon E, Schafer C, Hofmann U, Klotz U (1996) Disposition and first-pass metabolism of ethanol in humans: is it gastric or hepatic and does it depend on gender. Clin Pharmacol Ther 59(5):503–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arthur MJP, Lee A, Wright R (1984) Sex differences in the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde in normal subjects. Clin Sci 67:397–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baraona E, Abittan CS, Dohmen K et al (2001) Gender differences in pharmacokinetics of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 25(4):502–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Breslin FC, Kapur BM, Sobell MB, Cappell H (1997) Gender and alcohol dosing: a procedure for producing comparable breath alcohol curves for men and women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 21(5):928–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cole-Harding S, Wilson JR (1987) Ethanol metabolism in men and women. J Stud Alcohol 48(4):380–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dettling A, Fischer F, Böhler S et al (2006a) Grundlagen der Pharmakokinetik des Ethanols anhand von Atemalkoholkonzentrationen. I. Anflutung und Gipfelkonzentrationen. Blutalkohol 43(4):257–268Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dettling A, Böhler S, Fischer F et al (2006b) Grundlagen der Pharmakokinetik des Ethanols anhand von Atemalkoholkonzentrationen. II. Eliminationskinetik. Blutalkohol 43(5):376–384Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dettling A, Fischer F, Böhler S et al (2007) Ethanol elimination rates in men and women in consideration of the calculated liver weight. Alcohol 41:415–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dettling A, Skopp G, Graw M, Haffner HT (2008) The influence of sex hormones on the elimination kinetics of ethanol. Forensic Sci Int 177:85–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fischer F, Dettling A, Ulrichs F, Graw M, Haffner HAT (2005) Akzeleration der durchschnittlichen Ethanol—Eliminationsraten in Trinkversuchen. Rechtsmedizin 4(15):336Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Freudenberg K (1966) Zur Neufestsetzung eines Grenzwertes der absoluten Fahruntüchtigkeit. Die Rückrechnung. In Lundt PV, Jahn E: Gutachten des Bundesgesundheitsamtes zur Frage Alkohol bei Verkehrsstraftaten. 1C6/1, Kirschbaumverlag, Bad Godesberg pp 53–58Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gubala W, Zuba D (2003) Gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood after oral ingestion. Pol J Pharmacol 55:639–644PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haffner HT, Besserer K, Stetter F, Mann K (1991) Rate of ethanol elimination in alcoholics with special reference to variants of maximal values for legal calculation of blood alcohol concentration. Blutalkohol 28:46–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jachau K, Sauer S, Krause D, Wittig H (2004) Comparative regression analysis of concurrent elimination-phase blood and breath alcohol concentration measurements to determine hourly degradation rates. Forensic Sci Int 143:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones AW (2008) Ultra-rapid rate of ethanol elimination from blood in drunken drivers with extremely high blood-alcohol concentrations. Int J Legal Med 122(2):129–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones AW, Andersson L (2003) Comparison of ethanol concentrations in venous blood and end-expired breath during a controlled drinking study. Forensic Sci Int 132:18–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jones AW, Andersson L (1996) Influence of age, gender, and blood-alcohol concentration on the disappearance rate of alcohol from blood in drinking drivers. J Forensic Sci 41(6):922–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jones AW, Norberg A, Hahn GH (1997) Concentration–time profiles of ethanol in arterial and venous blood and end-expired breath during and after intravenous infusion. J Forensic Sci 42:1088–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kwo PY, Ramchandani VA, O’Connor S et al (1998) Gender differences in alcohol metabolism: relationship to liver volume and effect of adjusting for body mass. Gastroenterology 115:1552–1557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li TK, Beard JD, Orr WE, Kwo PY, Ramchandani VA, Thomasson HR (2000) Variation in ethanol pharmacokinetics and perceived gender and ethnic differences in alcohol elimination. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(4):415–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lieber CS, De Carli L (1972) The role of the hepatic microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS) for ethanol metabolism in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 181:279–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Marshall AW, Kingstone D, Boss M, Morgan MY (1983) Ethanol elimination in males and females: relationship to menstrual cycle and body composition. Hepatology 3(5):701–706PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mezey E (2000) Influence of sex hormones on alcohol metabolism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(4):421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mezey E, Hamilton B, Potter JJ (1989) Effect of testosterone administration on rates of ethanol elimination in hypogonadal patients. Alcohol 6(4):331–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mishra L, Sharma S, Potter J, Mezey E (1989) More rapid elimination of alcohol in women as compared to their male siblings. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 13(6):752–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pavlic M, Grubwieser P, Libiseller K, Rabl W (2007) Elimination rates of breath alcohol. Forensic Sci Int 171:16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seidl S, Jensen U, Alt A (2000) The calculation of blood ethanol concentration in males and females. Int J Legal Med 114:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sutker PB, Goist KC, Allain AN, Bugg F (1987a) Acute alcohol intoxication: sex comparisons on pharmacokinetic and mood measures. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11(6):507–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sutker PB, Goist KC, King AR (1987b) Acute alcohol intoxication in women: relationship to dose and menstrual cycle phase. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 11(1):74–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Thomasson H (2000) Alcohol elimination: faster in women. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 24(4):419–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Verbeke G, Molenberghs G (2000) Linear mixed models for longitudinal data. Springer. http://www.amazon.com/Linear-Mixed-Models-Longitudinal-Data/dp/0387950273
  32. 32.
    Widmark EPM (1932) Die theoretischen Grundlagen und die praktische Verwendbarkeit der gerichtlich-medizinischen Alkoholbestimmung. Urban& Schwarzenberg, Berlin 1–140Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Dettling
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Witte
    • 2
  • G. Skopp
    • 1
  • M. Graw
    • 3
  • H. Th. Haffner
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Forensic Medicine and Traffic MedicineUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Novartis Pharmaceuticals AG (formerly Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg)BaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Institute for Forensic MedicineUniversity of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations