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The launch of satellite: DNA repeats as a cytogenetic tool in discovering the chromosomal universe of wild Triticeae


Fluorescence in situ hybridization is a powerful tool that enables plant researchers to perform systematic, evolutionary, and population studies of wheat wild relatives as well as to characterize alien introgression into the wheat genome. This retrospective review reflects on progress made in the development of methods for creating new chromosomal markers since the launch of this cytogenetic satellite instrument to the present day. DNA probes based on satellite repeats have been widely used for chromosome analysis, especially for “classical” wheat probes (pSc119.2 and Afa family) and “universal” repeats (45S rDNA, 5S rDNA, and microsatellites). The rapid development of new-generation sequencing and bioinformatical tools, and the application of oligo- and multioligonucleotides has resulted in an explosion in the discovery of new genome- and chromosome-specific chromosome markers. Owing to modern technologies, new chromosomal markers are appearing at an unprecedented velocity. The present review describes the specifics of localization when employing commonly used vs. newly developed probes for chromosomes in J, E, V, St, Y, and P genomes and their diploid and polyploid carriers Agropyron, Dasypyrum, Thinopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Elymus, Roegneria, and Kengyilia. Particular attention is paid to the specificity of probes, which determines their applicability for the detection of alien introgression to enhance the genetic diversity of wheat through wide hybridization. The information from the reviewed articles is summarized into the TRepeT database, which may be useful for studying the cytogenetics of Triticeae. The review describes the trends in the development of technology used in establishing chromosomal markers that can be used for prediction and foresight in the field of molecular biology and in methods of cytogenetic analysis.

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The database TRepeT developed in this paper is available at ( Supplementary Table is available at the Supplementary Information.docx file.


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This study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation, grant number 21-16-00123.


This study was funded by the Russian Science Foundation, grant number 21–16-00123.

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Conceptualization: Pavel Yu. Kroupin and Mikhail G. Divashuk; literature search and data analysis: Pavel Yu. Kroupin and Daniil S. Ulyanov; funding acquisition: Pavel Yu. Kroupin; writing—original draft: Pavel Yu. Kroupin; writing—review and editing: Mikhail G. Divashuk and Gennady I. Karlov. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Pavel Yu. Kroupin.

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Kroupin, P.Y., Ulyanov, D.S., Karlov, G.I. et al. The launch of satellite: DNA repeats as a cytogenetic tool in discovering the chromosomal universe of wild Triticeae. Chromosoma (2023).

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  • In situ hybridization
  • Wheat wild relatives
  • Wide hybridization
  • Wheat improvement
  • Repeated satellite DNA
  • DNA probes
  • Agropyron
  • Dasypyrum
  • Thinopyrum
  • Pseudoroegneria
  • Elymus
  • Roegneria
  • Kengyilia