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BAC- and oligo-FISH mapping reveals chromosome evolution among Vigna angularis, V. unguiculata, and Phaseolus vulgaris


Cytogenomic resources have accelerated synteny and chromosome evolution studies in plant species, including legumes. Here, we established the first cytogenetic map of V. angularis (Va, subgenus Ceratotropis) and compared this new map with those of V. unguiculata (Vu, subgenus Vigna) and P. vulgaris (Pv) by BAC-FISH and oligopainting approaches. We mapped 19 Vu BACs and 35S rDNA probes to the 11 chromosome pairs of Va, Vu, and Pv. Vigna angularis shared a high degree of macrosynteny with Vu and Pv, with five conserved syntenic chromosomes. Additionally, we developed two oligo probes (Pv2 and Pv3) used to paint Vigna orthologous chromosomes. We confirmed two reciprocal translocations (chromosomes 2 and 3 and 1 and 8) that have occurred after the Vigna and Phaseolus divergence (~9.7 Mya). Besides, two inversions (2 and 4) and one translocation (1 and 5) have occurred after Vigna and Ceratotropis subgenera separation (~3.6 Mya). We also observed distinct oligopainting patterns for chromosomes 2 and 3 of Vigna species. Both Vigna species shared similar major rearrangements compared to Pv: one translocation (2 and 3) and one inversion (chromosome 3). The sequence synteny identified additional inversions and/or intrachromosomal translocations involving pericentromeric regions of both orthologous chromosomes. We propose chromosomes 2 and 3 as hotspots for chromosomal rearrangements and de novo centromere formation within and between Vigna and Phaseolus. Our BAC- and oligo-FISH mapping contributed to physically trace the chromosome evolution of Vigna and Phaseolus and its application in further studies of both genera.

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All data generated during this study are available in this published paper and its Supplementary Information files.


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We thank Embrapa Arroz e Feijão, Embrapa Meio-Norte, and IPK for providing the seeds. We also thank Timothy Close (University of California, Riverside) for providing the V. unguiculata BAC clones and Claudio César Montenegro Júnior for positioning the BAC H074C16 on the sequence map. We thank CNPq, CAPES, and FACEPE for fellowships and financial support.


This research was supported by CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) (Grant nos. 442019/2019-0, 421968/2018-4, 433931/2018-3, 310804/2017-5, 310871/2014-0, and 313527/2017-2) and FACEPE (Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco) APQ-0409-2.02/16. The doctorate scholarship and a doctorate-abroad scholarship were provided by CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior), Finance Code 001 and Project no. 88881.189152/2018-01, respectively.

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LVM performed the BAC- and oligo-FISH experiments and wrote the paper. FOB and ARSO helped to perform the experiments. AFC performed seed multiplication. QL analyzed the sequence synteny data. HZ designed the oligo-FISH probes. APH and FOB conceived the oligo probes. MMA and TC maintained and provided V. unguiculata BAC clones. JJ provided the resources for the oligo-FISH experiments. APH, LLF, AMBI, and JJ planed the experiments and discussed the results. ACBV was doctorate supervisor of LVM, designed and directed the research, and helped to write the paper. All authors read, discussed, and approved the final version of the paper.

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Correspondence to Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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do Vale Martins, L., de Oliveira Bustamante, F., da Silva Oliveira, A.R. et al. BAC- and oligo-FISH mapping reveals chromosome evolution among Vigna angularis, V. unguiculata, and Phaseolus vulgaris. Chromosoma 130, 133–147 (2021).

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  • Beans
  • Chromosomal rearrangements
  • Karyotype evolution
  • Macrosynteny
  • Oligopainting