Advertisement

Radiation and Environmental Biophysics

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 97–106 | Cite as

External and internal irradiation of a Rural Bryansk (Russia) population from 1990 to 2000, following high deposition of radioactive caesium from the chernobyl accident

  • C. ThornbergEmail author
  • R. Vesanen
  • E. Wallström
  • I. Zvonova
  • T. Jesko
  • M. Balonov
  • S. Mattsson
Original Paper

Abstract

In 1990, a joint Nordic-Russian project was initiated in order to make independent estimations of the effective dose to selected groups of inhabitants in a highly contaminated area around the city of Novozybkov in the western Bryansk region of Russia. The inhabitants were living in six villages with initial contamination levels of 137Cs between 0.9 and 2.7 MBq m−2. Some villages had been decontaminated, others not. Both school children and adults participated in the study. The external irradiation of 100–130 inhabitants was determined during 1 month in September-October each year from 1990 to 2000 (except 1999), using individual thermoluminescent dosemeters. The body burden of 137,134Cs was determined by in vivo measurements in about 500 inhabitants annually from 1991 to 2000, and for a subgroup also with analysis of the 137Cs concentration in urine. The mean effective dose (E) from external and internal irradiation due to 137,134Cs deposition varied between 2.5 and 1.2 mSv per year between 1990 and 2000. The total mean E decreased, on average, by 9% per year, while the mean external dose decreased by 16% per year. The dose rate from internal radiation decreased more slowly than the dose rate from external radiation, and also showed an irregular time variation. The contribution from the internal dose to the total E was 30–50%, depending on the village. Predictions for the long-term changes in the effective dose to people living in the areas are presented. The cumulated E for the 70 years following the accident was estimated to be about 90 mSv with the assumption that both internal and external dose decrease by 2% per year after year 2000. The highest E during a life-time received by single individuals living in the area may amount to around 500 mSv considering the individual variations in E.

Keywords

Effective Dose External Irradiation Body Burden 137Cs Concentration Annual Effective Dose 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would specially like to thank all the participating inhabitants in the villages studied. This project was financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, SSI.

References

  1. 1.
    Balonov MI, Travnikova IG (1993) Importance of diet and protective actions on internal dose from Cs radionuclides in inhabitants of the Chernobyl region. In: Mervin SE, Balonov MI (eds) The Chernobyl Papers, vol 1, Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies. Research Enterprises, Richland, pp 127–166Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Erkin V, Wallström E, Wöhni T (1994) External doses from Chernobyl fall-out: individual dose measurements in the Brjansk region of Russia. Radiat Prot Dosim 51:265–273Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zvonova IA, Jesko TV, Balonov MI, Danilova IO, Wallström E, Alpsten M, Thornberg C, Mattsson S (1995) 134Cs and 137Cs whole-body measurements and internal dosimetry of the population living in areas contaminated by radioactivity after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 62:213–221Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wallström E (1998) Assessment of population radiation exposure after a nuclear reactor accident. Field studies in Russia and Sweden after Chernobyl. (Thesis) Department of Radiation Physics, Göteborg University, Göteborg. ISBN 91-628-3221-1Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thornberg C (2000) Irradiation of members of the public from radioactive caesium following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Field studies in a highly contaminated area in the Bryansk region, Russia. (Thesis) Department of Radiation Physics, Malmö. Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. ISBN 91-7874-101-7Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jesko T, Zvonova I, Balonov M, Thornberg C, Mattsson S, Wallström E, Vesanen R, Alpsten M (2000) Age-dependent dynamics of caesium radionuclide content in inhabitants of the Bryansk region, Russia: a seven-year study. Radiat Prot Dosim 89:179–182Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    USSR State Committee on Hydrometeorology (1991). Data on contamination of RSFSR settlements by cesium-137, strontium-90, and plutonium-239,240 (as of April 25, 1991). SCH, ObninskGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wallström E, Thornberg C, Erkin V, Wöhni T, Gulikov V, Zvonova I, Jesko T, Alpsten M, Balonov M, Mattsson S (1995) Estimation of radiation doses to population groups in the Brjansk area, Russia following the Chernobyl accident. In: Proceedings of symposium – environmental impact of radioactive releases, Vienna, May 1995. IAEA-SM-339/96, pp 413–420Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rääf C, Thornberg C, Mattsson S (1999) Urinary excretion measurements for the assessment of body burden of radiocesium in man. Differences between potassium and creatinine normalisation. Appl Radiat Isotopes 51:505–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thornberg C, Wallström E, Zvonova I, Jesko T, Vesanen R, Mattsson S, Alpsten M, Balonov M (2000) Estimation of whole-body content of 137Cs from single urine samples. Experiences from areas in Russia contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 88:239–246Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rääf C (2000) Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia. Thesis. Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmö. ISBN 91-628-4065-7Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection (1975) Reference man: anatomical, physiological and metabolic characteristics. ICRP Publication 23, Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zvonova IA, Ya BG, Kaidanovsky GN, Jesko TV, Balonov MI (2000) Mass internal exposure monitoring of the population in Russia after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 89:173–178Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Palmer HE (1966) Simplified whole-body counting. Health Phys 12:95–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kaidanovsky GN, Dolgirev EI (1997) Calibration of radiometers for mass control of incorporated 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs nuclides with the help of volunteers. Radiat Prot Dosim 71:187–194Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thornberg C, Vesanen R, Wallström E, Zvonova I, Jesko T, Albinsson J, Börjesson J, Mattsson S (2001) Long-term external radiation exposure of inhabitants in the western Bryansk region, Russia as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys 40:287–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection (1989) Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intakes of radionuclides. ICRP Publication 56, Part 1; Ann. ICRP 20 (2), Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ICRP, International Commission on Radiological Protection (1993) Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: part 2. Ingestion dose coefficients. Publication 67, Part 2. Ann. ICRP, 23(3/4)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Snyder WS, Ford MR, Warner GG, Watson SB (1975) “S” Absorbed dose per unit cumulated activity for selected radionuclides and organs. MIRD Pamphlet No 11. Society of Nuclear Medicine, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Johansson L, Ågren G (1994) 137Cs in the population of Northern Sweden. Radiat Prot Dosim 55:131–142Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Skuterud L, Travnikova I, Balonov M, Strand P, Howard B (1997) Contribution of fungi to radiocaesium intake by rural populations in Russia. Sci Total Environ 193:237–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hille R, Hill P, Heinemann K, Ramzaev V, Barkovski A, Konoplia V, Neth R (2000) Current development of the human and environmental contamination in the Bryansk-Gomel spot after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Environ Biophys 39:99–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Finck R (1992) High resolution field gamma spectrometry and its application to problems in environmental radiology. (Thesis) Department of radiation physics Malmö, Lund University, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden. ISBN 91-628-0739-0Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jacob P, Paretzke HG, Rosenbaum H, Zankl M (1988) Organ doses from radionuclides on the ground. Part I. Simple time dependencies. Health Phys 54:617–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacob P, Paretzke HG, Rosenbaum H, Zankl M (1986) Effective dose equivalents for photon exposures from plane sources on the ground. Radiat Prot Dosim 14:299–310Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Golikov V, Balonov M, Erkin V, Jacob P (1999) Model validation for external doses due to environmental contaminations by the Chernobyl accident. Health Phys 77:654–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wöhni T (1995) External dose from radioactive fallout: dosimetry and levels. (Thesis) Department of Physics, Norwegian Institute of Technology and University of Trondheim, TrondheimGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jacob P, Likhtariev I (eds) (1996) JSP 5 International scientific collaboration on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident (1991–1995). Joint study project No.5, Pathway analysis and dose distributions. Final report. EUR 16541 EN, ISBN 92-8275207-0 LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shutov VN, Bruk GY, Basalaeva LN, Vasilevitskiy VA, Ivanova NP, Kaplun IS (1996) The role of mushrooms and berries in the formation of internal exposure doses to the population of Russia after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 67:55–64Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bruk G, Shutov V, Balonov M, Basalaeva L, Kislov M (1998) Dynamics of 137Cs content in agricultural food products produced in regions of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 76:169–178Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Balonov MI, Bruk GY, Zvonova IA, Pitkevich VA, Bratilova AA, Jesko TV, Shutov VN (2000) Methodology of internal dose reconstruction for Russian population after the Chernobyl accident. Radiat Prot Dosim 92:247–253Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shutov VN, Bruk GY, Balonov MI, Parkhomenko VI, Pavlov IY (1993) Cesium and strontium radionuclides migration in the agricultural ecosystem and estimation for the dose of internal irradiation in population. In: Mervin SE, Balonov MI (eds) The Chernobyl Papers, vol 1, Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies. Research Enterprises, Richland, pp 167–220Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Balonov MI, Anisimova LI, Perminova GS (1999) Strategy for population protection and area rehabilitation in Russia in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident. J Radiol Prot 19:261–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Golikov V, Balonov MI, Ponomarev AV (1993) Estimation of external gamma radiation doses to the population after the Chernobyl accident. In: Mervin SE, Balonov MI (eds) The Chernobyl Papers, vol 1, Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies. Research Enterprises, Richland, pp 247–288Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Erkin VG and Lebedev OV (1993) Thermoluminiscent dosimeter measurements of external doses to the population of the Bryansk region after the Chernobyl accident. In: Mervin SE, Balonov MI (eds) The chernobyl papers, vol 1, Doses to the Soviet population and early health effects studies. Research Enterprises, Richland, pp 289–311Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    United Nations (2000) Sources and effects of ionising radiation: United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation, (UNSCEAR), 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with scientific annexes. United Nations, New York, vol 1: Sources. - 654 s. ISBN 92-1-142238-8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Thornberg
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Vesanen
    • 2
  • E. Wallström
    • 3
  • I. Zvonova
    • 4
  • T. Jesko
    • 4
  • M. Balonov
    • 4
  • S. Mattsson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Radiation PhysicsLund University, Malmö University HospitalMalmöSweden
  2. 2.Department of Radiation PhysicsGöteborg University, Sahlgrenska University HospitalGöteborgSweden
  3. 3.Department of RadiologyNÄLTrollhättanSweden
  4. 4.Institute of Radiation HygieneSt PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations