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Petrogenesis of the granitic Donkerhuk batholith in the Damara Belt of Namibia: protracted, syntectonic, short-range, crustal magma transfer

  • J. D. Clemens
  • I. S. Buick
  • A. F. M. Kisters
  • D. Frei
Original Paper

Abstract

The areally extensive (>5000 km2), syn-tectonic, ca. 520 Ma, mainly S-type Donkerhuk batholith was constructed through injection of thousands of mainly sheet-like magma pulses over 20–25 Myr. It intruded schists of the Southern Zone accretionary prism in the Damara Belt of Namibia. Each magma pulse had at least partly crystallised prior to the arrival of the following batch. However, much of the batholith may have remained partially molten for long periods, close to the H2O-saturated granite solidus. The batholith shows extreme variation in chemistry, while having limited mineralogical variation, and seems to be the world’s most heterogeneous granitic mass. The Nd model ages of ~2 Ga suggest that Eburnean rocks of the former magmatic arc, structurally overlain by the accretionary wedge, are the most probable magma sources. Crustal melting was initiated by mantle heat flux, probably introduced by thermal diffusion rather than magma advection. The granitic magmas were transferred from source to sink, with minimal intermediate storage; the whole process having occurred in the middle crust, resulting in feeble crustal differentiation despite the huge volume of silicic magma generated. Source heterogeneity controlled variation in the magmas and neither mixing nor fractionation was prominent. However, due to the transpressional emplacement régime, local filter pressing formed highly silicic liquids, as well as felsic cumulate rocks. The case of the Donkerhuk batholith demonstrates that emplacement-level tectonics can significantly influence compositional evolution of very large syn-tectonic magma bodies.

Keywords

Granite Petrogenesis Crustal melting Middle crust Heterogeneity Source terrane Damara Belt Namibia 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research reported here was funded through South African NRF research Grant Number 87822 (Evolution of the African Lithosphere: A Case Study in the Donkerhuk Batholith), awarded to JC, IB and AK. The work of several honours students from Stellenbosch (Matthew Baleta, Jonathan Gloyn-Jones, Sabine Henry, Laubser Pepler and Warwick Watt) also made contributions, particularly to the structural aspects of the study. Prof. S. Jung (University of Hamburg) kindly provided the chemical analysis and tracer isotope data for our sample DH02. Comments by two anonymous reviewers resulted material improvements in the paper.

Supplementary material

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of StellenboschMatielandSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Earth ScienceUniversity of the Western CapeBellvilleSouth Africa

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