Origin of felsic volcanism in the Izu arc intra-arc rift

Abstract

An intra-arc rift (IAR) is developed behind the volcanic front in the Izu arc, Japan. Bimodal volcanism, represented by basalt and rhyolite lavas and hydrothermal activity, is active in the IAR. The constituent minerals in the rhyolite lavas are mainly plagioclase and quartz, whereas mafic minerals are rare and are mainly orthopyroxene without any hydrous minerals such as amphibole and biotite. Both the phenocryst and groundmass minerals have felsic affinities with a narrow compositional range. The petrological and bulk chemical characteristics are similar to those of melts from some partial melting experiments that also yield dry rhyolite melts. The hydrous mineral-free narrow mineral compositions and low-Al2O3 affinities of the IAR rhyolites are produced from basaltic middle crust under anhydrous low-temperature melting conditions. The IAR basalt lavas display prominent across-arc variation, with depleted elemental compositions in the volcanic front side and enriched compositions in the rear-arc side. The across-arc variation reflects gradual change in the slab-derived components, as demonstrated by decreasing Ba/Zr and Th/Zr values to the rear-arc side. Rhyolite lavas exhibit different across-arc variations in either the fluid-mobile elements or the immobile elements, such as Nb/Zr, La/Yb, and chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns, reflecting that the felsic magmas had different source. The preexisting arc crust formed during an earlier stage of arc evolution, most probably during the Oligocene prior to spreading of the Shikoku back-arc basin. The lack of systematic across-arc variation in the IAR rhyolites and their dry/shallow crustal melting origin combines to suggest re-melting of preexisting Oligocene middle crust by heat from the young basaltic magmatism.

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Acknowledgements

We are much indebted to the captain and crew of R/V MOANA WAVE for sample recovery. We express gratitude to Prof. Hidekazu Tokuyama, Dr. Shiki Machida, and Dr. Takashi Miyazaki for the discussions. We would like to thank Dr. Marc Humblet for detailed comments on the manuscript. We also would like to thank Mr. Taichi Sato for drawing maps used in this study by Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) and discussions. We would like to thank Drs. Timothy L. Grove and James B. Gill and anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. The authors would like to thank Enago (http://www.enago.jp) for the English language review.

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Correspondence to Satoru Haraguchi.

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Communicated by Timothy L. Grove.

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Fig. A1

Supplementary material 1 . Dredged rhyolite samples from the IAR during the cruise MW9507. a. Massive rhyolites of sample MWD42-1. b. Rhyolite with macroscopic flow structure in sample MWD40-5 (TIF 14426 KB)

Fig. A2. a

Supplementary material 2 . Typical aphyric rhyolite dredged from site MWD61 (sample MWD61-5). Groundmass shows fine hyaloophitic texture. Open polars. b. Typical pl microphenocrysts in the aphyric rhyolite. This sample was dredged from site MWD40 (sample MWD40-5). Open polars. c. Typical opx microphenocrysts in the aphyric rhyolite. This sample was dredged from site MWD84 (sample MWD84-3). Open polars. d. Cpx (left and center), oopx (upper), and pl (center) microphenocryst in a typical 2-px andesite dredged from site MWD50 (sample MWD50-1). twinning texture is observed in the some plagioclase phenocrysts. Groundmass shows fine intersertal texture. Crossed polars. e. Cpx (left) and (upper) phenocrysts in a typical 2-px basalt dredged from site MWD32 (Sample MWD32-4). Mineral assemblage and groundmass texture show characteristics similar to andesite. Crossed polars. f Ol (center) and pl (lower) in a typical primitive basalt dredged from site MWD08 (Sample MWD08-7). Groundmass shows fine intersertal textures. Open polars (TIF 26016 KB)

Table A1

Supplementary material 3 . All bulk-rock composition data obtained by XRF and ICP–MS for volcanic rocks dredged during cruise MW9507. Comparison of standard analyses is shown in Table 2 (XLS 117 KB)

Table A2

Supplementary material 4 . Selected data of mineral composition measured by the EPMA (XLS 61 KB)

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Haraguchi, S., Kimura, JI., Senda, R. et al. Origin of felsic volcanism in the Izu arc intra-arc rift. Contrib Mineral Petrol 172, 25 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-017-1345-1

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Keywords

  • Intra-arc rifting
  • Bimodal volcanism
  • Across-arc geochemical variation
  • Mantle-derived basalt
  • Rhyolite crustal melt
  • Izu arc