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The composition of nanogranitoids in migmatites overlying the Ronda peridotites (Betic Cordillera, S Spain): the anatectic history of a polymetamorphic basement

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Abstract

The study of the composition of primary melts during anatexis of high-pressure granulitic migmatites is relevant to understand the generation and differentiation of continental crust. Peritectic minerals in migmatites can trap droplets of melt that forms via incongruent melting reactions during crustal anatexis. These melt inclusions commonly crystallize and form nanogranitoids upon slow cooling of the anatectic terrane. To obtain the primary compositions of crustal melts recorded in these nanogranitoids, including volatile concentrations and information on fluid regimes, they must be remelted and rehomogenized before analysis. A new occurrence of nanogranitoids was recently reported in garnets of mylonitic metapelitic gneisses (former high pressure granulitic migmatites) at the bottom of the prograde metamorphic sequence of Jubrique, located on top of the Ronda peridotite slab (Betic Cordillera, S Spain). Nanogranitoids within separated chips of cores and rims of large garnets from these migmatites were remelted at 15 kbar and 850, 825 or 800 °C and dry (without added H2O), during 24 h, using a piston cylinder apparatus. Although all experiments show glass (former melt) within melt inclusions, the extent of rehomogenization depends on the experimental temperature. Experiments at 850–825 °C show abundant disequilibrium microstructures, whereas those at 800 °C show a relatively high proportion of rehomogenized nanogranitoids, indicating that anatexis and entrapment of melt inclusions in these rocks likely occurred at pressures ≤1.5 GPa and temperatures close to 800 °C. Electron microprobe and NanoSIMS analyses show that experimental glasses are leucogranitoid and peraluminous, though define two distinct compositional groups. Type I melt inclusions correspond to K-rich, Ca- and H2O-poor leucogranitic melts, whereas type II melt inclusions represent K-poor, Ca- and H2O-rich granodioritic to tonalitic melts. Type I and II melt inclusions are found in most cases at the cores and rims of large garnets porphyroclasts, respectively. We tentatively interpret these two distinct melt compositions as suggesting that these former migmatites underwent two melting events under contrasting fluid regimes, possibly during two different orogenic periods. This study demonstrates the strong potential of melt inclusions studies in migmatites and granulites in order to unravel their anatectic history, particularly in strongly deformed rocks where most of the classical anatectic microstructures and macrostructures have been erased during deformation.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the International Lithosphere Program (grant CC4-MEDYNA) and by FP7 Marie-Curie Action IRSES-MEDYNA funded under GA PIRSES-GA-2013-61257. Research grants to C.J.G. from MINECO (CGL2013-42349-P) and Junta de Andalucía (research group RNM-131) are also acknowledged. This research has benefited from EU Cohesion Policy funds from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF) in support of human resources, innovation and research capacities, and research infrastructures. A.B. acknowledges an FPI Ph.D. Fellowship from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación MINECO (Ref. BES-2011-045283). B.C. acknowledges funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (PRIN 2010TT22SC) and the Università di Padova (Progetto di Ateneo CPDA107188/10). A.A.-V acknowledges a research contract from the Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (IACT) and a Piscopia—Marie Curie Fellowship (GA No. 600376) from the Universitá di Padova. O.B. acknowledges funding from the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (SIR RBSI14Y7PF) and the Università di Padova (Progetti per Giovani Studiosi 2013). The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission, Seventh Framework Programme, under Grant Agreement no. 600376. We are grateful to David London and François Holtz for discussion and suggestions, Timothy Grove for editorial handling, and two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments that have significantly strengthened and made more clear the manuscript. We also thank Rosario Reyes-González (IACT) for sample preparation, Isabel Sánchez-Almazo (CIC, Universidad de Granada) for assistance with the scanning electron microscope study and backscattered electron images of melt inclusions, Raul Carampin for assistance with the electron microprobe analyses, and Ángel Caballero (IACT) and Antonio Pedrera (Instituto Geológico y Minero de España) for drawing Fig. 1.

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Acosta-Vigil, A., Barich, A., Bartoli, O. et al. The composition of nanogranitoids in migmatites overlying the Ronda peridotites (Betic Cordillera, S Spain): the anatectic history of a polymetamorphic basement. Contrib Mineral Petrol 171, 24 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-016-1230-3

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