Fine-scale temporal recovery, reconstruction and evolution of a post-supereruption magmatic system

  • Simon J. BarkerEmail author
  • Colin J. N. Wilson
  • Aidan S. R. Allan
  • C. Ian Schipper
Original Paper


Supereruptions (>1015 kg ≈ 450 km3 of ejected magma) have received much attention because of the challenges in explaining how and over what time intervals such large volumes of magma are accumulated, stored and erupted. However, the processes that follow supereruptions, particularly those focused around magmatic recovery, are less fully documented. We present major and trace-element data from whole-rock, glass and mineral samples from eruptive products from Taupo volcano, New Zealand, to investigate how the host magmatic system reestablished and evolved following the Oruanui supereruption at 25.4 ka. Taupo’s young eruptive units are precisely constrained chronostratigraphically, providing uniquely fine-scale temporal snapshots of a post-supereruption magmatic system. After only ~5 kyr of quiescence following the Oruanui eruption, Taupo erupted three small volume (~0.1 km3) dacitic pyroclastic units from 20.5 to 17 ka, followed by another ~5-kyr-year time break, and then eruption of 25 rhyolitic units starting at ~12 ka. The dacites show strongly zoned minerals and wide variations in melt-inclusion compositions, consistent with early magma mixing followed by periods of cooling and crystallisation at depths of >8 km, overlapping spatially with the inferred basal parts of the older Oruanui silicic mush system. The dacites reflect the first products of a new silicic system, as most of the Oruanui magmatic root zone was significantly modified in composition or effectively destroyed by influxes of hot mafic magmas following caldera collapse. The first rhyolites erupted between 12 and 10 ka formed through shallow (4–5 km depth) cooling and fractionation of melts from a source similar in composition to that generating the earlier dacites, with overlapping compositions for melt inclusions and crystal cores between the two magma types. For the successively younger rhyolite units, temporal changes in melt chemistry and mineral phase stability are observed, which reflect the development, stabilisation and maturation of a new, probably unitary, silicic mush system. This new mush system was closely linked to, and sometimes physically interacted with, underlying mafic melts of similar composition to those involved in the Oruanui supereruption. From the inferred depths of magma storage and geographical extent of vent sites, we consider that a large silicic mush system (>200 km3 and possibly up to 1000 km3 in volume) is now established at Taupo and is capable of feeding a new episode or cycle of volcanism at any stage in the future.


Supereruption Taupo Volcanic Zone Caldera Rhyolite Taupo volcano 



We thank John Gamble, Roger Briggs, Michelle Coombs, George Cooper, Melissa Rotella and Bruce Charlier for helpful discussions. Olivier Bachmann, Benjamin Andrews and an anonymous reviewer are thanked for their constructive comments. We are grateful to the late John Watson for his analytical services. New Zealand Forest Managers and Timberlands kindly allowed access to Lake Taupo Forest and Waimihia Forest, respectively, for sample collection. We acknowledge financial support from the Marsden Fund of the Royal Society of New Zealand (Grant VUW0813), a Royal Society of New Zealand James Cook Fellowship to CJNW, and a Victoria University Doctoral Scholarship, a Postgraduate Research Excellence Award and two Victoria University Strategic Research Grants awarded to SJB. CIS acknowledges the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) postdoctoral fellowship for work at JAMSTEC with A.R.L. Nichols.

Supplementary material

410_2015_1155_MOESM1_ESM.xls (68 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 68 kb)
410_2015_1155_MOESM2_ESM.xls (174 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 173 kb)
410_2015_1155_MOESM3_ESM.xlsx (2.4 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (XLSX 2445 kb)
410_2015_1155_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (56 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (XLSX 55 kb)
410_2015_1155_MOESM5_ESM.xls (41 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (XLS 41 kb)


  1. Allan ASR (2013) The Oruanui eruption: insights into the generation and dynamics of the world’s youngest supereruption. PhD thesis, Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand ( )
  2. Allan ASR, Wilson CJN, Millet M-A, Wysoczanski RJ (2012) The invisible hand: tectonic triggering and modulation of a rhyolitic supereruption. Geology 40:563–566Google Scholar
  3. Allan ASR, Morgan DJ, Wilson CJN, Millet M-A (2013) From mush to eruption in centuries: assembly of the super-sized Oruanui magma body. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166:143–164Google Scholar
  4. Andersen DJ, Lindsley DH (1988) Internally consistent solution models for Fe–Mg–Mn–Ti oxides: fe–Ti oxides. Am Mineral 73:714–726Google Scholar
  5. Aramaki S (1984) Formation of the Aira Caldera, southern Kyushu, ~22,000 years ago. J Geophys Res 89:8485–8501Google Scholar
  6. Arculus RJ (2003) Use and abuse of the terms calcalkaline and calcalkalic. J Petrol 44:929–935Google Scholar
  7. Bachmann O, Bergantz GW (2004) On the origin of crystal-poor rhyolites: extracted from batholithic crystal mushes. J Petrol 45:1565–1582Google Scholar
  8. Bachmann O, Bergantz G (2008) The magma reservoirs that feed supereruptions. Elements 4:17–21Google Scholar
  9. Bachmann O, Deering CD, Ruprecht JS, Huber C, Skopelitis A, Schnyder C (2012) Evolution of silicic magmas in the Kos–Nisyros volcanic center, Greece: a petrological cycle associated with caldera collapse. Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:151–166Google Scholar
  10. Bacon CR, Hirschmann MM (1988) Mg/Mn partitioning as a test for equilibrium between coexisting Fe–Ti oxides. Am Mineral 73:57–61Google Scholar
  11. Bain AA, Jellinek AM, Wiebe RA (2013) Quantitative field constraints on the dynamics of silicic magma chamber rejuvenation and overturn. Contrib Mineral Petrol 165:1275–1294Google Scholar
  12. Barker SJ, Wilson CJN, Smith EGC, Charlier BLA, Wooden J, Hiess J, Ireland TR (2014) Post-supereruption magmatic reconstruction of Taupo volcano (New Zealand), as reflected in zircon ages and trace elements. J Petrol 55:1511–1533Google Scholar
  13. Baumgart IL (1954) Some ash showers of the central North Island. NZ J Sci Technol B35:456–467Google Scholar
  14. Bégué F, Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS, Pamukcu AS, Kennedy BM, Gravley DM, Deering CD, Chambefort I (2014) Phase-equilibrium geobarometers for silicic rocks based on rhyolite-MELTS. Part 2: application to Taupo Volcanic Zone rhyolites. Contrib Mineral Petrol 168:1082Google Scholar
  15. Behrens H, Ohlhorst S, Holtz F, Champenois M (2004) CO2 solubility in dacitic melts equilibrated with H2O–CO2 fluids: implications for modeling the solubility of CO2 in silicic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:4687–4703Google Scholar
  16. Bibby HM, Caldwell TG, Davey FJ, Webb TH (1995) Geophysical evidence on the structure of the Taupo Volcanic Zone and its hydrothermal circulation. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:29–58Google Scholar
  17. Bindeman IN, Valley JW, Wooden JL, Persing HM (2001) Post-caldera volcanism: in situ measurement of U–Pb age and oxygen isotope ratio in Pleistocene zircons from Yellowstone caldera. Earth Planet Sci Lett 189:197–206Google Scholar
  18. Blake S, Wilson CJN, Smith IEM, Walker GPL (1992) Petrology and dynamics of the Waimihia mixed magma eruption, Taupo Volcano, New Zealand. J Geol Soc Lond 149:193–207Google Scholar
  19. Blundy J, Cashman K (2008) Petrological reconstruction of magmatic system variables and processes. In: Putirka KD, Tepley FJ (eds) Minerals, inclusions and volcanic processes. Rev Mineral Geochem 69:179–239Google Scholar
  20. Blundy JD, Wood BJ (1991) Crystal-chemical controls on the partitioning of Sr and Ba between plagioclase feldspar, silicate melts, and hydrothermal solutions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:193–209Google Scholar
  21. Brooker MR, Houghton BF, Wilson CJN, Gamble JA (1993) Pyroclastic phases of a rhyolitic dome-building eruption: Puketarata tuff ring, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol 55:395–406Google Scholar
  22. Burgisser A, Scaillet B (2007) Redox evolution of a degassing magma rising to the surface. Nature 445:194–197Google Scholar
  23. Caricchi L, Annen C, Blundy J, Simpson G, Pinel V (2014) Frequency and magnitude of volcanic eruptions controlled by magma injection and buoyancy. Nature Geosci 7:126–130Google Scholar
  24. Cashman K, Blundy J (2013) Petrological cannibalism: the chemical and textural consequences of incremental magma body growth. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166:703–729Google Scholar
  25. Charlier BLA, Wilson CJN, Lowenstern JB, Blake S, van Calsteren PW, Davidson JP (2005) Magma generation at a large, hyperactive silicic volcano (Taupo, New Zealand) revealed by U–Th and U–Pb systematics in zircons. J Petrol 46:3–32Google Scholar
  26. Charlier BLA, Wilson CJN, Davidson JP (2008) Rapid open-system assembly of a large silicic magma body: time-resolved evidence from cored plagioclase crystals in the Oruanui eruption deposits, New Zealand. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156:799–813Google Scholar
  27. Charlier BLA, Wilson CJN, Mortimer N (2010) Evidence from zircon U–Pb age spectra for crustal structure and felsic magma genesis at Taupo volcano, New Zealand. Geology 38:915–918Google Scholar
  28. Cole JW, Deering CD, Burt RM, Sewell S, Shane PAR, Matthews NE (2014) Okataina Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: a review of volcanism and synchronous pluton development in an active, dominantly silicic caldera system. Earth Sci Rev 128:1–17Google Scholar
  29. Conrad WK, Nicholls IA, Wall VJ (1988) Water-saturated and -undersaturated melting of metaluminous and peraluminous crustal compositions at 10 kb: evidence for the origin of silicic magmas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, and other occurrences. J Petrol 29:765–803Google Scholar
  30. Coombs ML, Gardner JE (2001) Shallow storage conditions for the rhyolite of the 1912 eruption at Novarupta, Alaska. Geology 29:775–778Google Scholar
  31. Coombs ML, Sisson TW, Bleick HA, Henton SM, Nye CJ, Payne AL, Cameron CE, Larsen JF, Wallace KL, Bull KF (2013) Andesites of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 259:349–372Google Scholar
  32. Dall’Agnol R, Scaillet B, Pichavant M (1999) An experimental study of a lower Proterozoic A-type granite from the eastern Amazonian craton, Brazil. J Petrol 40:1673–1698Google Scholar
  33. Davy BW, Caldwell TG (1998) Gravity, magnetic and seismic surveys of the caldera complex, Lake Taupo, North Island, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 81:69–89Google Scholar
  34. de Silva SL, Gregg PM (2014) Thermomechanical feedbacks in magmatic systems: implications for growth, longevity, and evolution of large caldera-forming magma reservoirs and their supereruptions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 282:77–91Google Scholar
  35. Deering CD, Bachmann O, Dufek J, Gravley DM (2011) Rift-related transition from andesite to rhyolite volcanism in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (New Zealand) controlled by crystal-melt dynamics in mush zones with variable mineral assemblages. J Petrol 52:2243–2263Google Scholar
  36. Dufek J, Bachmann O (2010) Quantum magmatism: magmatic compositional gaps generated by melt-crystal dynamics. Geology 38:687–690Google Scholar
  37. Dunbar NW, Kyle PR (1993) Lack of volatile gradient in the Taupo plinian-ignimbrite transition: evidence from melt inclusion analysis. Am Mineral 78:612–618Google Scholar
  38. Dunbar NW, Hervig RL, Kyle PR (1989a) Determination of pre-eruptive H2O, F and Cl contents of silicic magmas using melt inclusions: examples from Taupo volcanic centre, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol 51:177–184Google Scholar
  39. Dunbar NW, Kyle PR, Wilson CJN (1989b) Evidence for limited zonation in silicic magma systems, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geology 17:234–236Google Scholar
  40. Ellis SM, Wilson CJN, Bannister S, Bibby HM, Heise W, Wallace L, Patterson N (2007) A future magma inflation event under the rhyolitic Taupo volcano, New Zealand: numerical models based on constraints from geochemical, geological, and geophysical data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 168:1–27Google Scholar
  41. Erdmann S, Martle C, Pichavant M, Kushnir A (2014) Amphibole as an archivist of magmatic crystallization conditions: problems, potential, and implications for inferring magma storage prior to the paroxysmal 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1016Google Scholar
  42. Ersoy EY (2013) PETROMODELER (Petrological Modeler) a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program for modelling melting, mixing, crystallization and assimilation processes in magmatic systems. Turkish J Earth Sci 22:115–125Google Scholar
  43. Evans BW, Scaillet B, Kuehner SM (2006) Experimental determination of coexisting iron- titanium oxides in the systems FeTiAlO, FeTiAlMgO, FeTiAlMnO, and FeTiAlMgMnO at 800 and 900°C, 1–4 kbar, and relatively high oxygen fugacity. Contrib Mineral Petrol 152:149–167Google Scholar
  44. Froggatt PC, Lowe DJ (1990) A review of late Quaternary silicic and some other tephra formations from New Zealand: their stratigraphy, nomenclature, distribution, volume, and age. NZ J Geol Geophys 33:89–109Google Scholar
  45. Gamble JA, Smith IEM, Graham IJ, Kokelaar BP, Cole JW, Houghton BF, Wilson CJN (1990) The petrology, phase relations and tectonic setting of basalts from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand and the Kermadec Island Arc—Havre Trough, SW Pacific. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 43:253–270Google Scholar
  46. Gamble JA, Smith IEM, McCulloch MT, Graham IJ, Kokelaar BP (1993) The geochemistry and petrogenesis of basalts from the Taupo Volcanic Zone and Kermadec Island Arc, S.W. Pacific. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 54:265–290Google Scholar
  47. Gelman SE, Deering CD, Gutierrez FJ, Bachmann O (2013) Evolution of the Taupo volcanic center, New Zealand: petrological and thermal constraints from the Omega dacite. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166:1355–1374Google Scholar
  48. Ghiorso MS, Evans BW (2008) Thermodynamics of rhombohedral oxide solid solutions and a revision of the Fe–Ti two-oxide geothermometer and oxygen-barometer. Am J Sci 308:957–1039Google Scholar
  49. Girard G, Stix J (2009) Buoyant replenishment in silicic magma reservoirs: experimental approach and implications for magma dynamics, crystal mush remobilization, and eruption. J Geophys Res 114:B08203Google Scholar
  50. Glazner AF, Bartley JM, Coleman DS, Gray W, Taylor RZ (2004) Are plutons assembled over millions of years by amalgamation from small magma chambers? GSA Today 14(4/5):4–11Google Scholar
  51. Graham IJ, Hackett WR (1987) Petrology of calc-alkaline lavas from Ruapehu volcano and related vents, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. J Petrol 28:531–567Google Scholar
  52. Graham IJ, Gulson BL, Hedenquist JW, Mizon K (1992) Petrogenesis of Late Cenozoic volcanic rocks from the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, in the light of new lead isotope data. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56:2797–2819Google Scholar
  53. Graham IJ, Cole JW, Briggs RM, Gamble JA, Smith IEM (1995) Petrology and petrogenesis of volcanic rocks from the Taupo Volcanic Zone: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:59–87Google Scholar
  54. Hackett WR (1985) Geology and petrology of Ruapehu Volcano and related vents. PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  55. Harrison A, White RS (2006) Lithospheric structure of an active backarc basin: the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geophys J Int 167:968–990Google Scholar
  56. Healy J (1964) Stratigraphy and chronology of late Quaternary volcanic ash in Taupo, Rotorua, and Gisborne districts. Part 1. Dating of the younger volcanic eruptions of the Taupo region. NZ Geol Surv Bull 73:7–42Google Scholar
  57. Heise W, Caldwell TG, Bibby HM, Bennie SL (2010) Three dimensional electrical resistivity image of magma beneath an active continental rift, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geophys Res Lett 37:L1030Google Scholar
  58. Hildreth W (1981) Gradients in silicic magma chambers: implications for lithospheric magmatism. J Geophys Res 86:10153–10192Google Scholar
  59. Hildreth W (2004) Volcanological perspectives on Long Valley, Mammoth Mountain, and Mono Craters: several contiguous but discrete systems. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 136:169–198Google Scholar
  60. Hildreth W, Wilson CJN (2007) Compositional zoning of the Bishop Tuff. J Petrol 48:951–999Google Scholar
  61. Hogg AG, Lowe DJ, Palmer J, Boswijk G, Ramsey CB (2012) Revised calendar date for the Taupo eruption derived by 14C wiggle-matching using a New Zealand kauri 14C calibration data set. Holocene 22:439–449Google Scholar
  62. Houghton BF, Carey RJ, Cashman KV, Wilson CJN, Hobden BJ, Hammer JE (2010) Diverse patterns of ascent, degassing, and eruption of rhyolite magma during the 1.8 ka Taupo eruption, New Zealand: evidence from clast vesicularity. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 195:31–47Google Scholar
  63. Ihinger PD, Hervig RL, McMillan PF (1994) Analytical methods for volatiles in glasses. In: Carroll MR, Holloway JR (eds) Volatiles in magmas. Rev Mineral Geochem 30:67–121Google Scholar
  64. Klimm K, Holtz F, Johannes W, King PL (2003) Fractionation of metaluminous A-type granites: an experimental study of the Wangrah Suite, Lachlan Fold Belt, Australia. Precamb Res 124:327–341Google Scholar
  65. Knesel KM, Davidson JP, Duffield WA (1999) Evolution of silicic magma through assimilation and subsequent recharge: evidence from Sr isotopes in sanidine phenocrysts, Taylor Creek Rhyolite, NM. J Petrol 40:773–786Google Scholar
  66. Kohn BP, Topping WW (1978) Time-space relationships between late Quaternary rhyolitic and andesitic volcanism in the southern Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geol Soc Am Bull 89:1265–1271Google Scholar
  67. Lee C-TA, Bachmann O (2014) How important is the role of crystal fractionation in making intermediate magmas? Insights from Zr and P systematics. Earth Planet Sci Lett 393:266–274Google Scholar
  68. Leonard GS, Begg JG, Wilson CJN (2010) Geology of the Rotorua area: scale 1:250,000. Inst Geol Nucl Sci 1:250,000 geological map 5. Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences Limited, Lower Hutt, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  69. Lipman PW (1965) Chemical comparison of glassy and crystalline volcanic rocks. US Geol Surv Bull 1201-D: 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  70. Lipman PW (2007) Incremental assembly and prolonged consolidation of Cordilleran magma chambers: evidence from the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field. Geosphere 3:42–70Google Scholar
  71. Lipman PW, Bachmann O (2015) Ignimbrites to batholiths: integrating perspectives from geological, geophysical, and geochronological data. Geosphere 11:705–743Google Scholar
  72. Liu Y, Anderson AT, Wilson CJN, Davis AM, Steele IM (2006) Mixing and differentiation in the Oruanui rhyolitic magma, Taupo, New Zealand: evidence from volatiles and trace elements in melt inclusions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 151:71–87Google Scholar
  73. Malfait WJ, Seifert R, Petitgirard S, Perrillat J-P, Mezouar M, Ota T, Nakamura E, Lerch P, Sanchez-Valle C (2014) Supervolcano eruptions driven by melt buoyancy in large silicic magma chambers. Nature Geosci 7:122–125Google Scholar
  74. Mankinen EA, Grommé CS, Dalrymple GB, Lanphere MA, Bailey RA (1986) Paleomagnetism and K–Ar ages of volcanic rocks from Long Valley caldera, California. J Geophys Res 91:633–652Google Scholar
  75. Manville V, Wilson CJN (2003) Interactions between volcanism, rifting and subsidence: implications of intracaldera palaeoshorelines at Taupo volcano, New Zealand. J Geol Soc Lond 160:3–6Google Scholar
  76. Marsh BD (1981) On the crystallinity, probability of occurrence, and rheology of lava and magma. Contrib Mineral Petrol 78:85–98Google Scholar
  77. Miller CF, Wark DA (2008) Supervolcanoes and their explosive supereruptions. Elements 4:11–16Google Scholar
  78. Millet M-A, Tutt CM, Handler MH, Baker JA (2014) Processes and time scales of dacite magma assembly and eruption at Tauhara volcano, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15:213–237Google Scholar
  79. Miyashiro A (1974) Volcanic rock series in island arcs and active continental margins. Am J Sci 274:321–355Google Scholar
  80. Nairn IA, Kobayashi T, Nakagawa M (1998) The ~ 10 ka multiple vent pyroclastic eruption sequence at Tongariro Volcanic Centre, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: part 1. Eruptive processes during regional extension. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 86:19–44Google Scholar
  81. Newman S, Lowenstern JB (2002) VolatileCalc: a silicate melt-H2O–CO2 solution model written in Visual Basic for Excel. Comput Geosci 28:597–604Google Scholar
  82. Nichols ARL, Wysoczanski RJ (2007) Using micro-FTIR spectroscopy to measure volatile contents in small and unexposed inclusions hosted in olivine crystals. Chem Geol 242:371–384Google Scholar
  83. O’Neill HS, Pownceby MI (1993) Thermodynamic data from redox reactions at high- temperatures 1. An experimental and theoretical assessment of the electrochemical method using stabilized zirconia electrolytes, with revised values for the Fe–FeO, CO–COO, Ni, NiO and Cu–Cu2O oxygen buffers, and new data for the W–WO2 buffer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 114:296–314Google Scholar
  84. Okumura S, Nakamura M, Nakashima S (2003) Determination of molar absorptivity of IR fundamental OH-stretching vibration in rhyolitic glasses. Am Mineral 88:1657–1662Google Scholar
  85. Palme H, Beer H (1993) Abundances of the elements in the solar system. In: Voight HH (ed) Landolt-Börnstein, Group VI: astronomy and astrophysics: instruments; methods; solar system, vol 3(a). Springer, Berlin, pp 196–221Google Scholar
  86. Pearce NJG, Westgate JA, Perkins WT (1996) Developments in the analysis of volcanic glass shards by laser ablation ICP–MS: quantitative and single internal standard multi-element methods. Quat Int 34:213–227Google Scholar
  87. Phillips EH, Goff F, Kyle PR, McIntosh WC, Dunbar NW, Gardner JN (2007) The 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on the duration of resurgence at the Valles caldera, New Mexico. J Geophys Res 112:B08201Google Scholar
  88. Putirka KD (2008) Thermometers and barometers for volcanic systems. In: Putirka K, Tepley FJ (eds) Minerals, inclusions and volcanic processes. Rev Mineral Geochem 69:61–120Google Scholar
  89. Ramsey MH, Potts PJ, Webb PC, Watkins P, Watson JS, Coles BJ (1995) An objective assessment of analytical method precision: comparison of ICP-AES and XRF for the analysis of silicate rocks. Chem Geol 124:1–19Google Scholar
  90. Ridolfi F, Renzulli A, Puerini M (2010) Stability and chemical equilibrium of amphibole in calc-alkaline magmas: an overview, new thermobarometric formulations and application to subduction-related volcanoes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:45–66Google Scholar
  91. Rowland JV, Wilson CJN, Gravley DM (2010) Spatial and temporal variations in magma- assisted rifting, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 190:89–108Google Scholar
  92. Sauerzapf U, Lattard D, Burchard M, Engelman R (2008) The titanomagnetite-ilmenite equilibrium: new experimental data and thermo-oxybarometric application to the crystallization of basic to intermediate rocks. J Petrol 49:1161–1185Google Scholar
  93. Saunders KE (2009) Micro-analytical studies of the petrogenesis of silicic arc magmas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone and southern Kermadec Arc, New Zealand. PhD thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand (
  94. Shane P, Smith VC (2013) Using amphibole crystals to reconstruct magma storage temperatures and pressures for the post-caldera collapse volcanism at Okataina volcano. Lithos 156–159:159–170Google Scholar
  95. Shane P, Martin SB, Smith VC, Beggs KF, Darragh MB, Cole JW, Nairn IA (2007) Multiple rhyolite magmas and basalt injection in the 17.7 ka Rerewhakaaitu eruption episode from Tarawera volcanic complex, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 164:1–26Google Scholar
  96. Shane P, Nairn IA, Smith VC, Darragh M, Beggs KF, Cole JW (2008) Silicic recharge of multiple rhyolite magmas by basaltic intrusion during the 22.6 ka Okaraka eruption episode, New Zealand. Lithos 103:527–549Google Scholar
  97. Simon JI, Weis D, DePaolo DJ, Renne PR, Mundil R, Schmitt AK (2014) Assimilation of preexisting Pleistocene intrusions at Long Valley by periodic magma recharge accelerates rhyolite generation: rethinking the remelting model. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:955Google Scholar
  98. Smith VC, Shane P, Nairn IA (2005) Trends in rhyolite geochemistry, mineralogy, and magma storage during the last 50 kyr at Okataina and Taupo volcanic centres, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 148:372–406Google Scholar
  99. Smith EGC, Williams TD, Darby DJ (2007) Principal component analysis and modeling of the subsidenceof the shoreline of Lake Taupo, New Zealand, 1983–1999: evidence for dewatering of a magmatic intrusion? J Geophys Res 112:B08406Google Scholar
  100. Smith VC, Shane P, Nairn IA (2010) Insights into silicic melt generation using plagioclase, quartz and melt inclusions from the caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption, Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:951–971Google Scholar
  101. Sutton AN, Blake S, Wilson CJN (1995) An outline geochemistry of rhyolite eruptives from Taupo volcanic centre, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:153–175Google Scholar
  102. Sutton AN, Blake S, Wilson CJN, Charlier BLA (2000) Late Quaternary evolution of a hyperactive rhyolite magmatic system: Taupo volcanic centre, New Zealand. J Geol Soc Lond 157:537–552Google Scholar
  103. Tamic N, Behrens H, Holtz F (2001) The solubility of H2O and CO2 in rhyolitic melts in equilibrium with a mixed CO2–H2O fluid phase. Chem Geol 174:333–347Google Scholar
  104. Vandergoes MJ, Hogg AG, Lowe DJ, Newnham RM, Denton GH, Southon J, Barrell DJA, Wilson CJN, McGlone MS, Allan ASR, Almond PC, Petchey F, Dabell K, Dieffenbacher-Krall AC, Blaauw M (2013) A revised age for the Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra, a key marker for the last Glacial Maximum in New Zealand. Quat Sci Rev 74:195–201Google Scholar
  105. Vigneresse JL, Barbey P, Cuney M (1996) Rheological transitions during partial melting and crystallization with application to felsic magma segregation and transfer. J Petrol 37:1579–1600Google Scholar
  106. von Aulock FW, Kennedy BM, Schipper CI, Castro JM, Martin DE, Oze C, Watkins JM, Wallace PJ, Puskar L, Bégué F, Nichols ARL, Tuffen H (2014) Advances in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of natural glasses: from sample preparation to data analysis. Lithos 206–207:52–64Google Scholar
  107. Vucetich CG, Pullar WA (1973) Holocene tephra formations erupted in the Taupo area and interbedded tephras from other volcanic sources. NZ J Geol Geophys 16:745–780Google Scholar
  108. Wilson CJN (1993) Stratigraphy, chronology, styles and dynamics of late Quaternary eruptions from Taupo volcano, New Zealand. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A343:205–306Google Scholar
  109. Wilson CJN (2001) The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, New Zealand: an introduction and overview. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 112:133–174Google Scholar
  110. Wilson CJN, Charlier BLA (2009) Rapid rates of magma generation at contemporaneous magma systems, Taupo volcano, New Zealand: insights from U–Th model-age spectra in zircons. J Petrol 50:875–907Google Scholar
  111. Wilson CJN, Walker GPL (1985) The Taupo eruption, New Zealand I. General aspects. Phil Trans R Soc Lond A314:199–228Google Scholar
  112. Wilson CJN, Houghton BF, Lloyd EF (1986) Volcanic history and evolution of the Maroa-Taupo area, central North Island. In: Smith IEM (ed) Late Cenozoic Volcanism in New Zealand. R Soc NZ Bull 23:194–223Google Scholar
  113. Wilson CJN, Houghton BF, McWilliams MO, Lanphere MA, Weaver SD, Briggs RM (1995) Volcanic and structural evolution of Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 68:1–28Google Scholar
  114. Wilson CJN, Blake S, Charlier BLA, Sutton AN (2006) The 26.5 ka Oruanui eruption, Taupo volcano, New Zealand: development, characteristics and evacuation of a large rhyolitic magma body. J Petrol 47:35–69Google Scholar
  115. Wilson CJN, Gravley DM, Leonard GS, Rowland JV (2009). Volcanism in the central Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand: tempo, styles and controls. In: Thordarson T et al. (eds) Studies in volcanology: the legacy of George Walker. IAVCEI Proc Volcanol 2:225–247Google Scholar
  116. Wolff JA (1985) The effect of explosive eruption processes on geochemical patterns within pyroclastic deposits. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 26:189–201Google Scholar
  117. Wysoczanski R, Tani K (2006) Spectroscopic FTIR imaging of water species in silicic volcanic glasses and melt inclusions: an example from the Izu-Bonin arc. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 156:302–314Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simon J. Barker
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Colin J. N. Wilson
    • 1
  • Aidan S. R. Allan
    • 1
    • 3
  • C. Ian Schipper
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Geography, Environment and Earth SciencesVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  2. 2.School of EnvironmentUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  3. 3.Environmental Protection AuthorityWellingtonNew Zealand
  4. 4.R&D Center for Ocean Drilling ScienceJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)YokosukaJapan

Personalised recommendations