An H2O–CO2 mixed fluid saturation model compatible with rhyolite-MELTS

  • Mark S. GhiorsoEmail author
  • Guilherme A. R. Gualda
Original Paper


A thermodynamic model for estimating the saturation conditions of H2O–CO2 mixed fluids in multicomponent silicate liquids is described. The model extends the capabilities of rhyolite-MELTS (Gualda et al. in J Petrol 53:875–890, 2012a) and augments the water saturation model in MELTS (Ghiorso and Sack in Contrib Mineral Petrol 119:197–212, 1995). The model is internally consistent with the fluid-phase thermodynamic model of Duan and Zhang (Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:2311–2324, 2006). It may be used independently of rhyolite-MELTS to estimate intensive variables and fluid saturation conditions from glass inclusions trapped in phenocrysts. The model is calibrated from published experimental data on water and carbon dioxide solubility, and mixed fluid saturation in silicate liquids. The model is constructed on the assumption that water dissolves to form a hydroxyl melt species, and that carbon dioxide both a molecular species and a carbonate ion, the latter complexed with calcium. Excess enthalpy interaction terms in part compensate for these simplistic assumptions regarding speciation. The model is restricted to natural composition liquids over the pressure range 0–3 GPa. One characteristic of the model is that fluid saturation isobars at pressures greater than ~100 MPa always display a maximum in melt CO2 at nonzero H2O melt concentrations, regardless of bulk composition. This feature is universal and can be attributed to the dominance of hydroxyl speciation at low water concentrations. The model is applied to four examples. The first involves estimation of pressures from H2O–CO2-bearing glass inclusions found in quartz phenocrysts of the Bishop Tuff. The second illustrates H2O and CO2 partitioning between melt and fluid during fluid-saturated equilibrium and fractional crystallization of MORB. The third example demonstrates that the position of the quartz–feldspar cotectic surface is insensitive to melt CO2 contents, which facilitates geobarometry using phase equilibria. The final example shows the effect of H2O and CO2 on the crystallization paths of a high-silica rhyolite composition representative of the late-erupted Bishop Tuff. Software that implements the model is available at, and the model is incorporated into the latest version (1.1+) of rhyolite-MELTS.


Mixed fluid saturation Silicate melts Thermodynamics MELTS 



We are indebted to Gordon Moore for his helpful guidance, sage advice, and thoughtful insights. Three reviewers provided important and stimulating criticism that greatly improved the paper. In particular, the comments and suggestions of Roman Botcharnikov were especially helpful and directly instigated the metamorphosis of a mediocre first attempt into, we trust, a more useful and meaningful paper. Roman as well as Francesco Vetere generously shared experimental data prior to publication. Material support for this investigation was provided by the National Science Foundation through awards EAR 09-48734, EAR 11-19297, and EAR 13-21924 to MSG and EAR 09-48528, EAR 11-51337, and EAR 13-21806 to GARG.

Supplementary material

410_2015_1141_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 1543 kb)


  1. Allen JF, Batiza R, Perfit MR, Fornari DJ, Sack RO (1989) Petrology of lavas from the Lamont seamount chain and adjacent East Pacific Rise, 10°N. J Petrol 30:1245–1298Google Scholar
  2. Anderson AT, Davis AM, Lu FQ (2000) Evolution of Bishop Tuff rhyolitic magma based on melt and magnetite inclusions and zoned phenocrysts. J Petrol 41:449–473Google Scholar
  3. Barclay J, Rutherford MJ, Carroll MR, Murphy MD, Devine JD, Gardner J, Sparks RSJ (1998) Experimental phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Soufriere Hills magma. Geophys Res Lett 25:3437–3440Google Scholar
  4. Behrens H (1995) Determination of water solubilities in high-viscosity melts: an experimental study on NaAlSI3O8 and KAlSi3O8 melts. Eur J Mineral 7:905–920Google Scholar
  5. Behrens H, Jantos N (2001) The effect of anhydrous composition on water solubility in granitic melts. Am Mineral 86:14–20Google Scholar
  6. Behrens H, Nowak M (1997) The mechanisms of water diffusion in polymerized silicate melts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 126:377–385Google Scholar
  7. Behrens H, Meyer M, Holtz F, Benne D, Nowak M (2001) The effect of alkali ionic radius, temperature, and pressure on the solubility of water in MAlSi3O8 melts (M = Li, Na, K, Rb). Chem Geol 174:275–289Google Scholar
  8. Behrens H, Ohlhorst S, Holtz F, Champenois M (2004a) CO2 solubility in dacitic melts equilibrated with H2O–CO2 fluids: implications for modeling the solubility of CO2 in silicic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:4687–4703Google Scholar
  9. Behrens H, Tamic N, Holtz F (2004b) Determination of the molar absorption coefficient for the infrared absorption band of CO2 in rhyolitic glasses. Am Mineral 89:301–306Google Scholar
  10. Behrens H, Misiti V, Freda C, Vetere F, Botcharnikov RE, Scarlato P (2009) Solubility of H2O and CO2 in ultrapotassic melts at 1200 and 1250 °C and pressure from 50 to 500 MPa. Am Mineral 94:105–120Google Scholar
  11. Benne D, Behrens H (2003) Water solubility in haplobasaltic melts. Eur J Mineral 15:803–814Google Scholar
  12. Berndt J, Liebske C, Holtz F, Freise M, Nowak M, Ziegenbein D, Hurkuk W, Koepke J (2002) A combined rapid-quench and H2-membrane setup for internally heated pressure vessels: description and application for water solubility in basaltic melts. Am Mineral 87:1717–1720Google Scholar
  13. Bezmen NI, Zharikov VA, Epelbaum MB, Zavelsky VO, Dikov YP, Suk N, Koshemchuk SK (1991) The system NaAlSi3O8–H2O–H2 (1200 °C, 2-kbar)—the solubility and interaction mechanism of fluid species with melt. Contrib Mineral Petrol 109:89–97Google Scholar
  14. Blank JG, Stolper EM, Carroll MR (1993) Solubilities of carbon dioxide and water in rhyolitic melt at 850 °C and 750 bars. Earth and Planet Sci Lett 119:27–36Google Scholar
  15. Blatter DW, Carmichael ISE (2001) Hydrous phase equilibria of a Mexican high-silica andesite: a candidate for a mantle origin? Geochem Cosmochim Acta 65:4043–4065Google Scholar
  16. Blundy J, Cashman K, Rust A, Witham F (2010) A case for CO2-rich arc magmas: Earth Planet Sci Lett 290:289–301. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2009.12.013
  17. Botcharnikov R, Freise M, Holtz F, Behrens H (2005a) Solubility of C–O–H mixtures in natural melts: new experimental data and application range of recent models. Ann Geophys 48:633–646Google Scholar
  18. Botcharnikov R, Koepke J, Holtz F, McCammon C, Wilke M (2005b) The effect of water activity on the oxidation and structural state of Fe in a ferro-basaltic melt. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:5071–5085Google Scholar
  19. Botcharnikov RE, Behrens H, Holtz F (2006) Solubility and speciation of C–O–H fluids in andesitic melt at T = 1100–1300 °C and P = 200 and 500 MPa. Chem Geol 229:125–143Google Scholar
  20. Botcharnikov RE, Holtz F, Behrens H (2007) The effect of CO2 on the solubility of H2O-Cl fluids in andesitic melt. Eur J Mineral 19:671–680Google Scholar
  21. Brey GP (1976) CO2 solubility and solubility mechanisms in silicate melts at high pressures. Contrib Mineral Petrol 57:215–221Google Scholar
  22. Brooker R, Kohn S, Holloway J, McMillan P, Carroll M (1999) Solubility, speciation and dissolution mechanisms for CO2 in melts on the NaAlO2–SiO2 join. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:3549–3565Google Scholar
  23. Brooker R, Kohn S, Holloway J, McMillan P (2001) Structural controls on the solubility of CO2 in silicate melts part I: bulk solubility data. Chem Geol 174:225–239Google Scholar
  24. Burnham CW, Davis N (1974) The role of H2O in silicate melts; II. Thermodynamic and phase relations in the system NaAlSi3O8–H2O to 10 kilobars, 700 degrees to 1100 degrees C. Am J Sci 274:902–940Google Scholar
  25. Burnham C, Jahns R (1962) A method for determining the solubility of water in silicate melts. Am J Sci 260:721–745Google Scholar
  26. Burnham CW, Holloway JR, Davis NF (1969) Thermodynamic properties of water to 1000 °C and 10000 bars. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 132:1–96Google Scholar
  27. Carroll M, Blank JG (1997) The solubility of H2O in phonolitic melts. Am Mineral 82:549–556Google Scholar
  28. Di Matteo V, Carroll M, Behrens H, Vetere F, Brooker R (2004) Water solubility in trachytic melts. Chem Geol 213:187–196Google Scholar
  29. Dingwell DB, Harris DM, Scarfe CM (1984) The solubility of H2O in melts in the system SiO2–Al2O3–Na2O–K2O at 1-kbar to 2-kbar. J Geol 92:387–395Google Scholar
  30. Dingwell DB, Holtz F, Behrens H (1997) The solubility of H2O in peralkaline and peraluminous granitic melts. Am Mineral 82:434–437Google Scholar
  31. Dixon J, Stolper E, Holloway J (1995) An experimental study of water and carbon dioxide solubilities in mid-ocean ridge basaltic liquids. Part I: calibration and solubility models. J Petrol 36:1607–1631Google Scholar
  32. Duan X (2014) A general model for predicting the solubility behavior of H2O–CO2 fluids in silicate melts over a wide range of pressure, temperature and compositions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 125:582–609Google Scholar
  33. Duan Z, Zhang Z (2006) Equation of state of the H2O, CO2, and H2O–CO2 systems up to 10 GPa and 2573.15 K: molecular dynamics simulations with ab initio potential surface. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:2311–2324Google Scholar
  34. Duncan MS, Agee CB (2011) The partial molar volume of carbon dioxide in peridotite partial melt at high pressure. Earth Planet Sci Lett 312:429–436Google Scholar
  35. Duncan MS, Dasgupta R (2014) CO2 solubility and speciation in rhyolitic sediment partial melts at 1.5–3.0 GPa—implications for carbon flux in subduction zones. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 124:328–347Google Scholar
  36. Eggler DH (1973) Role of CO2 in melting processes in the mantle. Yearb Carnegie Inst Wash 72:457–467Google Scholar
  37. Feig ST, Koepke J, Snow JE (2006) Effect of water on tholeiitic basalt phase equilibria: an experimental study under oxidizing conditions. Contrib Mineral Petrol 152:611–638Google Scholar
  38. Fine G, Stolper EM (1985) The speciation of carbon dioxide in sodium aluminosilicate melts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 91:105–121Google Scholar
  39. Fine G, Stolper EM (1986) Dissolved carbon dioxide in basaltic glasses: concentrations and speciation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 76:263–278Google Scholar
  40. Fogel RA, Rutherford M (1990) The solubility of carbon-dioxide in rhyolitic melts—a quantitative FTIR study. Am Mineral 75:1311–1326Google Scholar
  41. Gaillard F, Pichavant M, Scaillet B (2003) Experimental determination of activities of FeO and Fe2O3 components in hydrous silicic melts under oxidizing conditions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 67:4389–4409Google Scholar
  42. Gerke TL, Kilinc AI (1992) Enrichment of SiO2 in rhyolites by fractional crystallization: an experimental study of peraluminous granitic rocks from the St. Francois Mountains, Missouri, USA. Lithos 29:273–283Google Scholar
  43. Ghiorso MS (1997) Thermodynamic modeling of igneous processes. Annual Rev Earth Planet Sci 25:221–241Google Scholar
  44. Ghiorso MS, Sack RO (1995) Chemical mass transfer in magmatic processes IV. A revised and internally consistent thermodynamic model for the interpolation and extrapolation of liquid-solid equilibria in magmatic systems at elevated temperatures and pressures. Contrib Mineral Petrol 119:197–212Google Scholar
  45. Ghiorso MS, Carmichael ISE, Rivers ML, Sack RO (1983) The Gibbs free energy of mixing of natural silicate liquids; an expanded regular solution approximation for the calculation of magmatic intensive variables. Contrib Mineral Petrol 84:107–145Google Scholar
  46. Ghiorso MS, Hirschmann MM, Reiners PW, Kress VC III (2002) The pMELTS: a revision of MELTS for improved calculation of phase relations and major element partitioning related to partial melting of the mantle to 3 GPa. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi: 10.1029/2001GC000217 Google Scholar
  47. Giordano D, Russell JK, Dingwell DB (2008) Viscosity of magmatic liquids: a model. Earth Planet Sci Lett 271:123–134Google Scholar
  48. Grove TL, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Housh T (1997) Magmatic processes that generated the rhyolite of Glass Mountain, Medicine Lake volcano, N. California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 127:205–223Google Scholar
  49. Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS (2013) The Bishop Tuff giant magma body: an alternative to the standard model. Contrib Mineral Petrol 166:755–775Google Scholar
  50. Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS (2014) Phase-equilibrium geobarometers for silicic rocks based on rhyolite-MELTS. Part 1: principles, procedures, and evaluation of the method. Contrib Mineral Petrol 168:1033. doi: 10.1007/s00410-014-1033-3 Google Scholar
  51. Gualda GAR, Ghiorso MS, Lemons RV, Carley TL (2012a) Rhyolite-MELTS: a modified calibration of MELTS optimized for silica-rich, fluid-bearing magmatic systems. J Petrol 53:875–890Google Scholar
  52. Gualda GAR, Pamukcu AS, Ghiorso MS, Anderson AT Jr, Sutton SR, Rivers ML (2012b) Timescales of quartz crystallization and the longevity of the Bishop giant magma body. PLoS One 7:e37492Google Scholar
  53. Guillot B, Sator N (2011) Carbon dioxide in silicate melts: a molecular dynamics simulation study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75:1829–1857Google Scholar
  54. Haar L, Gallagher JS, Kell GS (1984) NBS/NRC steam tables. Thermodynamic and transport properties and computer programs for vapor and liquid states of water in SI units. Hemisphere, Washington, DC, pp 271–276Google Scholar
  55. Hamilton D, Oxtoby S (1986) Solubility of water in albite-melt determined by the weight-loss method. J Geol 94:626–630Google Scholar
  56. Hamilton D, Burnham C, Osborn E (1964) The solubility of water and effects of oxygen fugacity and water content on crystallization in mafic magmas. J Petrol 5:21–39Google Scholar
  57. Hammer JE, Rutherford MJ, Hildreth W (2002) Magma storage prior to the 1912 eruption at Novarupta, Alaska. Contrib Mineral Petrol 144:144–162Google Scholar
  58. Helgeson HC, Kirkham DH (1974) Theoretical prediction of the thermodynamic behavior of aqueous electrolytes at high pressures and temperatures. I. Summary of the thermodynamic/electrostatic properties of the solvent. Am J Sci 274:1089–1198Google Scholar
  59. Hildreth W (1979) The Bishop Tuff: evidence for the origin of compositional zonation in silicic magma chambers. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:43–75Google Scholar
  60. Hirschmann MM, Ghiorso MS, Davis FA, Gordon SM, Mukerjee S, Grove TL, Krawczynski M, Medard E, Till CB (2008) Library of experimental phase relations (LEPR): a database and web portal for experimental magmatic phase equilibria. Geochem Geophys Geosys 9:Q03011. doi: 10.1029/2007GC001894 Google Scholar
  61. Holloway JR (1976) Fluids in the evolution of granitic magmas: consequences of finite CO2 solubility. Geol Soc Am Bull 10:1513–1518Google Scholar
  62. Holtz F, Behrens H, Dingwell DB, Taylor R (1992) Water solubility in aluminosilicate melts of haplogranite composition at 2 kbar. Chem Geol 96:289Google Scholar
  63. Holtz F, Behrens H, Dingwell DB, Johannes W (1995) H2O solubility in haplogranitic melts; compositional, pressure, and temperature dependence. Am Mineral 80:94Google Scholar
  64. Holtz F, Roux J, Behrens H, Pichavant M (2000) Water solubility in silica and quartzofeldspathic melts. Am Mineral 85:682–686Google Scholar
  65. Hui H, Zhang Y, Xu Z, Behrens H (2008) Pressure dependence of the speciation of dissolved water in rhyolitic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:3229–3240Google Scholar
  66. Iacono-Marziano G, Gaillard F, Pichavant M (2008) Limestone assimilation by basaltic magmas: an experimental re-assessment and application to Italian volcanoes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:719–738Google Scholar
  67. Iacono-Marziano G, Morizet Y, Le Trong E, Gaillard F (2012) New experimental data and semi-empirical parameterization of H2O–CO2 solubility in mafic melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 97:1–23Google Scholar
  68. Iacovino K, Moore G, Roggensack K, Oppenheimer C, Kyle P (2013) H2O–CO2 solubility in mafic alkaline magma: applications to volatile sources and degassing behavior at Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Contrib Mineral Petrol. doi: 10.1007/s00410-013-0877-2 Google Scholar
  69. Jakobsson S (1997) Solubility of water and carbon dioxide in an icelandite at 1400°C and 10 kilobars. Contrib Mineral Petrol 127:129–135Google Scholar
  70. Johannes W, Holtz F (1996) Petrogenesis and experimental petrology of granitic rocks. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  71. Kennedy G, Wasserburg G, Heard H, Newton R (1962) The upper three-phase region in the system SiO2–H2O. Am J Sci 260:501Google Scholar
  72. Kerrick DH, Jacobs GK (1981) A modified Redlick–Kwong equation for H2O, CO2, and H2O–CO2 mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Am J Sci 281:735–767Google Scholar
  73. Khitarov NI, Kadik AS, Lebedev EB (1963) Estimate of the thermal effect of the separation of water from felsic melts based on data for the system albite-water. Geochemistry 7:637–649Google Scholar
  74. Khitarov NI, Kadik AA, Lebedev YB (1968) solubility of water in a basalt melt. Geochem Int 5:667–674Google Scholar
  75. King PL, Holloway JR (2002) CO2 solubility and speciation in intermediate (andesitic) melts: the role of H2O and composition. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:1627–1640Google Scholar
  76. Kogarko LN, Burnham CW, Shettle D (1977) Water regime in alkalic magmas. Geochem Int 5:1–8Google Scholar
  77. Kohn S, Dupree R, Smith ME (1989) A multinuclear magnetic-resonance study of the structure of hydrous albite glasses. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:2925–2935Google Scholar
  78. Kress VC, Carmichael ISE (1988) Stoichiometry of the iron oxidation reaction in silicate melts. Am Mineral 73:1267–1274Google Scholar
  79. Kress VC, Carmichael ISE (1991) The compressibility of silicate liquids containing Fe2O3 and the effect of composition, temperature, oxygen fugacity and pressure on their redox states. Contrib Mineral Petrol 108:82–92Google Scholar
  80. Lange RA (1994) The effect of H2O, CO2, and F on the density and viscosity of silicate melts. In: Carroll MR, Holloway JR (eds) Volatiles in magmas. Rev Mineral, vol 30, pp 331–369Google Scholar
  81. Lange RA, Carmichael ISE (1987) Densities of Na2O–K2O–CaO–MgO–FeO–Fe2O3–Al2O3–TiO2–SiO2 liquids—new measurements and derived partial molar properties. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51:2931–2946Google Scholar
  82. Larsen J, Gardner J (2004) Experimental study of water degassing from phonolite melts: implications for volatile oversaturation during magmatic ascent. J Volcanol Geoth Res 134:109–124Google Scholar
  83. Lawson CL, Hanson RJ (1974) Solving least squares problems. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  84. Le Bas MJ, Le Maitre RW, Streckeisen A, Zanettin B (1986) A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali-silica diagram. J Petrol 27:745–750Google Scholar
  85. Lesne P, Kohn SC, Blundy J, Witham F, Botcharnikov RE, Behrens H (2011a) Experimental simulation of closed-system degassing in the system basalt-H2O–CO2–S–Cl. J Petrol 52:1737–1762Google Scholar
  86. Lesne P, Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Beny J-M (2011b) The carbon dioxide solubility in alkalic basalts: an experimental study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:153–168Google Scholar
  87. Lesne P, Scaillet B, Pichavant M, Iacono-Mariziano G, Beny J-M (2011c) The H2O solubility of alkali basaltic melts: an experimental study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 162:133–151Google Scholar
  88. Liu Q, Lange RA (2003) New density measurements on carbonate liquids and the partial molar volume of the CaCO3 component. Contrib Mineral Petrol 146:370–381Google Scholar
  89. Liu Y, Zhang Y, Behrens H (2005) Solubility of H2O in rhyolitic melts at low pressures and a new empirical model for mixed H2O–CO2 solubility in rhyolitic melts. J Volcanol Geoth Res 143:219–225Google Scholar
  90. Mangan M, Sisson T (2000) Delayed, disequilibrium degassing in rhyolitic magma: decompression experiments and implications for explosive volcanism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 183:441–455Google Scholar
  91. Martel C, Pichavant M, Bourdier J-L, Traineau H, Holtz F, Scaillet B (1998) Magma storage conditions and control of eruption regime in silicic volcanoes: experimental evidence from Mt. Pelé. Earth Planet Sci Lett 156:89–99Google Scholar
  92. Mattey DP (1991) Carbon dioxide solubility and carbon isotope fractionation in basaltic melt. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:3467–3473Google Scholar
  93. Mattey DP, Taylor WR, Green DH, Pillinger CT (1990) Carbon isotopic fractionation between CO2 vapor, silicate and carbonate melts—an experimental-study to 30 Kbar. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:492–505Google Scholar
  94. McMillan P, Peraudea G, Holloway J, Coutures JP (1986) Water solubility in a calcium aluminosilicate melt. Contrib Mineral Petrol 94:178–182Google Scholar
  95. Medard E, Grove TL (2008) The effect of H2O on the olivine liquidus of basaltic melts: experiments and thermodynamic models. Contrib Mineral Petrol 155:417–432Google Scholar
  96. Métrich N, Rutherford MJ (1998) Low pressure crystallization path of H2O-saturated basaltic-hawaiite melts from Mt. Etna: implications for open-system degassing of basaltic volcanoes. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62:1195–1205Google Scholar
  97. Moore G (2008) Interpreting H2O and CO2 contents in melt inclusions: constraints from solubility experiments and modeling. In: Putirka KD, Tepley FJ III (eds) Minerals, inclusions and volcanic processes. Rev Mineral Geochem, vol 69, pp 333–361Google Scholar
  98. Moore G, Carmichael ISE (1998) The hydrous phase equilibria (to 3 kbar) of an andesite and basaltic andesite from western Mexico: constraints on water content and conditions of phenocryst growth. Contrib Mineral Petrol 130:304–319Google Scholar
  99. Moore G, Vennemann T, Carmichael ISE (1998) An empirical model for the solubility of H2O in magmas to 3 kilobars. Am Mineral 83:36–42Google Scholar
  100. Moore G, Roggensack K, Klonowski S (2008) A low-pressure high-temperature technique for the piston-cylinder. Am Mineral 93:48–52Google Scholar
  101. Morizet Y, Brooker R, Kohn S (2002) CO2 in haplo-phonolite melt: solubility, speciation and carbonate complexation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66:1809–1820Google Scholar
  102. Morizet Y, Paris M, Gaillard F, Scaillet B (2010) C-O-H fluid solubility in haplobasalt under reducing conditions: an experimental study. Chem Geol 279:1–16Google Scholar
  103. Mysen BO (1976) Role of volatiles in silicate melts—solubility of carbon-dioxide and water in feldspar, pyroxene, and feldpathoid melts to 30 Kb and 1625 °C. Am J Sci 276:969–996Google Scholar
  104. Mysen BO, Cody GD (2004) Solubility and solution mechanism of H2O in alkali silicate melts and glasses at high pressure and temperature. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:5113–5126Google Scholar
  105. Mysen BO, Seitz MG, Frantz JD (1974) Measurements of the solubility of carbon dioxide in silicate melts utilizing maps of carbon-14 beta activity. Carnegie Inst Wash Yearb 73:224–226Google Scholar
  106. Newman S, Lowenstern JB (2002) VOLATILECALC: a silicate melt-H2O–CO2 solution model written in Visual Basic for excel. Comput Geosci 28:597–604Google Scholar
  107. Nicholls J (1980) A simple thermodynamic model for estimating the solubility of H2O in magmas. Contrib Mineral Petrol 74:211–220Google Scholar
  108. Nowak M, Behrens H (1995) Speciation of water in haplogranitic glasses and melts determined by in situ near-infrared spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:3445–3450Google Scholar
  109. Nowak M, Schreen D, Spickenbom K (2004) Argon and CO2 on the race track in silicate melts: a tool for the development of a CO2 speciation and diffusion model. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68:5127–5138Google Scholar
  110. Ochs FA III, Lange RL (1997) The partial molar volume, thermal expansivity, and compressibility of H2O in NaAlSi3O8 liquid: new measurements and an internally consistent model. Contrib Mineral Petrol 129:155–165Google Scholar
  111. Ohlhorst S, Behrens H, Holtz F (2001) Compositional dependence of molar absorptivities of near-infrared OH and H2O bands in rhyolitic to basaltic glasses. Chem Geol 174:5–20Google Scholar
  112. Orlova GP (1962) The solubility of water in albite melts—under pressure. Int Geol Rev 6:254–258Google Scholar
  113. Oxtoby S, Hamilton DL (1978) The discrete association of water with Na2O and SiO2 in NaAl silicate melts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 66:185–188Google Scholar
  114. Paillat O, Elphick SC, Brown WL (1992) The solubility of water in NaAlSi3O8 melts—a reexamination of Ab-H2O phase-relationships and critical-behavior at high-pressures. Contrib Mineral Petrol 112:490–500Google Scholar
  115. Pan V, Holloway J, Hervig RL (1991) The pressure and temperature-dependence of carbon-dioxide solubility in tholeiitic basalt melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:1587–1595Google Scholar
  116. Papale P (1997) Modeling of the solubility of a one-component H2O or CO2 fluid in silicate liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 126:237–251Google Scholar
  117. Papale P (1999) Modeling of the solubility of a two-component H2O + CO2 fluid in silicate liquids. Am Mineral 84:477–492Google Scholar
  118. Papale P, Moretti R, Barbato D (2006) The compositional dependence of the saturation surface of H2O + CO2 fluids in silicate melts. Chem Geol 229:78–95Google Scholar
  119. Pawley A, Holloway J, McMillan P (1992) The effect of oxygen fugacity on the solubility of carbon oxygen fluids in basaltic melt. Earth Planet Sci Lett 110:213–225Google Scholar
  120. Persikov ES (1974) Experimental studies of solubility of water in granitic melt and kinetics of the melt-water equilibria at high pressures. Int Geol Rev 16:1062–1067Google Scholar
  121. Pineau F, Shilobreeva S, Kadik A, Javoy M (1998) Water solubility and D/H fractionation in the system basaltic andesite-H2O at 1250 °C and between 0.5 and 3 kbars. Chem Geol 147:173–184Google Scholar
  122. Press WH, Teukolsky SA, Vetterling WT, Flannery BP (1999) Numerical recipes in C: the art of scientific computing, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  123. Prigogine I, Defay R (1954) Chemical thermodynamics. Longmans Green, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  124. Rai CS, Sharma SK, Muenow DW, Matson DW, Byers CD (1983) Temperature-dependence of CO2 solubility in high-pressure quenched glasses of diopside composition. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 47:953–958Google Scholar
  125. Roach AL (2005) The evolution of silicic magmatism in the post-caldera volcanism of the Phlegrean Fields, Italy. Ph.D. Dissertation, Brown UniversityGoogle Scholar
  126. Robie RA, HemJngway BS, Fisher JR (1978) Thermodynamic properties of minerals and related substances at 298.15 K and 1 bar (105 Pascals) pressure and at higher temperature. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1452Google Scholar
  127. Romano C, Dingwell DB, Behrens H (1996) Compositional dependence of H2O solubility along the joins NaAlSi3O8–KAlSi3O8, NaAlSi3O8–LiAlSi3O8, and KAlSi3O8–LiAlSi3O8. Am Mineral 81:452–461Google Scholar
  128. Schmidt BC, Behrens H (2008) Water solubility in phonolite melts: influence of melt composition and temperature. Chem Geol 256:259–268Google Scholar
  129. Schmidt B, Holtz F, Pichavant M (1999) Water solubility in haplogranitic melts coexisting with H2O–H2 fluids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 136:213–224Google Scholar
  130. Shaw HR (1963) Obsidian-H2O viscosities at 100 and 200 bars in temperature range 700 to 900 °C. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 68:6337–6343Google Scholar
  131. Shishkina TA, Botcharnikov RE, Holtz F, Almeev RR, Portnyagin MV (2010) Solubility of H2O- and CO2-bearing fluids in tholeiitic basalts at pressures up to 500 MPa. Chem Geol 277:115–125Google Scholar
  132. Shishkina TA, Botcharnikov RE, Holtz F, Almeev RR, Jazwa AM, Jakubiak AA (2014) Compositional and pressure effects on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in mafic melts. Chem Geol 388:112–129 Google Scholar
  133. Silver L, Stolper E (1989) Water in albitic glasses. J Petrol 30:667–709Google Scholar
  134. Silver LA, Ihinger PD, Stolper E (1990) The influence of bulk composition on the speciation of water in silicate-glasses. Contrib Mineral Petrol 104:142–162Google Scholar
  135. Spera FJ, Bergman SC (1980) Carbon dioxide in igneous petrogenesis: I. Aspects of the dissolution of CO2 in silicate liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 74:55–66Google Scholar
  136. Spera FJ, Bohrson WA, Till CB, Fowler SJ, Ghiorso MS (2007) Partitioning of trace elements among coexisting crystals, melt and supercritical fluid during isobaric fractional crystallization and fractional melting. Am Mineral 92:1881–1898Google Scholar
  137. Stolper EM (1982) The speciation of water in silicate melts. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 46:2609–2620Google Scholar
  138. Stolper EM (1989) Temperature dependence of the speciation of water in rhyolitic melts and glasses. Am Mineral 74:1247–1257Google Scholar
  139. Stolper EM, Holloway JR (1988) Experimental determination of the solubility of carbon dioxide in molten basalt at low pressure. Earth Planet Sci Lett 87:397–408Google Scholar
  140. Tamic N, Behrens H, Holtz F (2001) The solubility of H2O and CO2 in rhyolitic melts in equilibrium with a mixed CO2–H2O fluid phase. Chem Geol 174:333–347Google Scholar
  141. Thibault Y, Holloway J (1994) Solubility of CO2 in a Ca-rich leucitite—effects of pressure, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Contrib Mineral Petrol 116:216–224Google Scholar
  142. Vetere F, Botcharnikov RE, Holtz F, Behrens H, De Rosa R (2011) Solubility of H2O and CO2 in shoshonitic melts at 1250 °C and pressures from 50 to 400 MPa: implications for Campi Flegrei magmatic systems. J Volcanol Geoth Res 202:251–261Google Scholar
  143. Vetere F, Holtz F, Behrens H, Botcharnikov RE, Fanara S (2014) The effect of alkalis and polymerization on the solubility of H2O and CO2 in alkali-rich silicate melts. Contrib Mineral Petrol 167:1014. doi: 10.1007/s00410-014-1014-6 Google Scholar
  144. Wallace PJ, Anderson AT, Davis AM (1995) Quantification of pre-eruptive exsolved gas contents in silicic magmas. Nature 377:612–616Google Scholar
  145. Wallace PJ, Anderson AT, Davis AM (1999) Gradients in H2O, CO2, and exsolved gas in a large-volume silicic magma system: interpreting the record preserved in melt inclusions from the Bishop Tuff. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 104:20097–20122Google Scholar
  146. Wasserburg GJ (1988) Diffusion of water in silicate melts. J Geol 96:363–367Google Scholar
  147. Watson EB (1979) Diffusion of cesium ions in H2O-saturated granitic melt. Science 205:1259–1260Google Scholar
  148. Wilke M, Behrens H, Burkhard D (2002) The oxidation state of iron in silicic melt at 500 MPa water pressure. Chem Geol 189:55–67Google Scholar
  149. Yamashita S (1999) Experimental study of the effect of temperature on water solubility in natural rhyolite melt to 100 MPa. J Petrol 40:1497–1507Google Scholar
  150. Yoder HS Jr (1965) Diopside-anorthite-water at five and ten kilobars and its bearing on explosive volcanism. Carnegie Inst Wash Yearb 64:82–89Google Scholar
  151. Zhang Y, Ni H (2010) Diffusion of H, C and O components in silicate melts. In: Zhang Y, Cherniak J (eds) Diffusion in minerals and melts. Rev Mineral Geochem, vol 72, pp 171–226Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.OFM-ResearchSeattleUSA
  2. 2.Earth and Environmental SciencesVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations