Skip to main content
Log in

Volatile loss from melt inclusions in pyroclasts of differing sizes

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

We have investigated the loss of H2O from olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) by designing an experiment using tephra samples that cooled at different rates owing to their different sizes: ash, lapilli, and bomb samples that were deposited on the same day (10/17/74) of the sub-Plinian eruption of Volcán de Fuego in Guatemala. Ion microprobe, laser ablation-ICPMS, and electron probe analyses show that MIs from ash and lapilli record the highest H2O contents, up to 4.4 wt%. On the other hand, MIs from bombs indicate up to 30 % lower H2O contents (loss of ~1 wt% H2O) and 10 % post-entrapment crystallization of olivine. This evidence is consistent with the longer cooling time available for a bomb-sized clast, up to 10 min for a 3–4-cm radius bomb, assuming conductive cooling and the fastest H diffusivities measured in olivine (D~10−9 to 10−10 m2/s). On the other hand, several lines of evidence point to some water loss prior to eruption, during magma ascent and degassing in the conduit. Thus, results point to both slower post-eruptive cooling and slower magma ascent affecting MIs from bombs, leading to H2O loss over the timescale of minutes to hours. The important implication of this study is that a significant portion of the published data on H2O concentrations in olivine-hosted MIs may reflect unrecognized H2O loss via diffusion. This work highlights the importance of reporting clast and MI sizes in order to assess diffusive effects and the potential benefit of using water loss as a chronometer of magma ascent.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Anderson AT Jr (1984) Probable relations between plagioclase zoning and magma dynamics, Fuego Volcano, Guatemala. Am Mineral 69:660–676

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson AT Jr, Newman S, Williams SN, Druitt TH, Skirius C, Stolper E (1989) H2O, CO2, Cl and gas in plinian and ashflow Bishop rhyolites. Geology 17:221–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ariskin AA, Barmina GS (1999) An empirical model for the calculation of spinel-melt equilibria in mafic igneous systems at atmospheric pressure: 2. Fe-Ti oxides. Contrib Mineral Petrol 134:251–263

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Aubaud C, Hauri EH, Hirschmann MM (2004) Hydrogen partition coefficients between nominally anhydrous minerals and basaltic melts. Geophys Res Lett 31:L20611

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker DR (2008) The fidelity of melt inclusions as records of melt composition. Contrib Mineral Petrol 156(3):377–395

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baker DR, Freda C, Brooker RA, Scarlato P (2005) Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions. Ann Geophys 48:699–717

    Google Scholar 

  • Benjamin ER, Plank T, Wade JA, Kelley KA, Hauri EH, Alvarado GE (2007) High water contents in basaltic magmas from Irazu Volcano, Costa Rica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 168:68–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berlo K, Stix J, Roggensack K, Ghaleb B (2012) A tale of two magmas, Fuego, Guatemala. Bull Volcanol 74:377–390

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blundy JD, Cashman KV (2005) Rapid decompression-driven crystallization recorded by melt inclusions from Mount St Helens volcano. Geology 33(10):793–796

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blundy JD, Cashman KV, Rust AC, Witham F (2010) A case for CO2-rich arc magmas. Earth Planet Sci Lett 290:289–301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Canil D (2002) Vanadium in peridotites, mantle redox and tectonic environments: archean to present. Earth Planet Sci Lett 195:75–90

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carr MJ, Rose WI (1987) CENTAM: a data base of Central American volcanic rocks. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33:239–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carr MJ, Walker JA (1987) Intra-eruption changes in composition of some mafic to intermediate tephras in Central-America. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 33(1–3):147–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carr MJ, Feigenson MD, Bennett EA (1990) Incompatible element and isotopic evidence for tectonic control of source mixing and melt extraction along the Central American arc. Contrib Mineral Petrol 105:369–380

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cashman KV (2004) Volatile controls on magma ascent and degassing. AGU Monogr 150:109–124

    Google Scholar 

  • Cervantes P, Wallace P (2003) The role of water in subduction zone magmatism: new insights from melt inclusions in high-Mg basalts from central Mexico. Geology 31:235–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen Y, Provost A, Schiano P, Cluzel N (2010) Water content in olivine-hosted melt inclusions measured by Raman spectroscopy and possible effect of water re-equilibration during magma ascent and eruption, Eos Trans AGU 91(Fall Meet Suppl)

  • Chen Y, Provost A, Schiano P, Cluzel N (2011) The rate of water loss from olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Contrib Mineral Petrol. doi:10.1007/s00410-011-0616-5

    Google Scholar 

  • Collins SJ, Pyle DM, Maclennan J (2009) Melt inclusions track pre-eruption storage and dehydration of magmas at Etna. Geology 37(6):571–574

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa F, Cohmen R, Chakraborty S (2008) Time scales of magmatic processes from modeling the zoning patterns of crystals. Rev Mineral Geochem 69:545–594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cottrell E, Spiegelman M, Langmuir CH (2002) Consequences of diffusive reequilibration for the interpretation of melt inclusions. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi:10.1029/2001GC000205

    Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV (2001) The effect of small amounts of H2O on crystallization of mid-ocean ridge and backarc basin magmas. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 110:265–280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV, Plechov P (2011) Petrolog3: integrated software for modeling crystallization processes. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi:10.1029/2011GC003516

    Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV, Della-Pasqua FN, Sokolov S (2000) Re-equilibration of melt inclusions trapped by magnesian olivine phenocrysts from subduction-related magmas: petrological implications. Contrib Mineral Petrol 138:68–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV, McNeill AW, Sobolev AV (2002) Experimental and petrological studies of melt inclusions in phenocrysts from mantle-derived magmas: an overview of techniques, advantages and complications. Chem Geol 183:5–24

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV, Perfit MR, Eggins SM, Falloon TJ (2003) Crustal origin for coupled ‘ultra-depleted’ and ‘plagioclase’ signatures in MORB olivine-hosted melt inclusions: evidence from the Siqueiros Transform Fault, East Pacific Rise. Contrib Mineral Petrol 144:619–637

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danyushevsky LV, Leslie RAJ, Crawford AJ, Durance P (2004) Melt inclusions in primitive olivine phenocrysts: the role of localized reaction processes in the origin of anomalous compositions. J Petrol 45:2531–2553

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demouchy S, Mackwell SJ (2003) Water diffusion in synthetic ironfree forsterite. Phys Chem Miner 30:486–494

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demouchy S, Mackwell SJ (2006) Mechanisms of hydrogen incorporation and diffusion in iron-bearing olivine. Phys Chem Miner 33:347–355

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demouchy S, Jacobsen SD, Gaillard F, Stern CR (2006) Rapid magma ascent recorded by water diffusion profiles in mantle olivine. Geology 34:429–432

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dixon JE, Clague DA, Stolper E (1991) Degassing history of water, sulfur, and carbon in submarine lavas from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geol 99:371–394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dufek J, Manga M, Patel A (2012) Granular disruption during explosive volcanic eruptions. Nat Geosci. doi:10.1038/NGEO1524

    Google Scholar 

  • Farver JR (2010) Oxygen and hydrogen diffusion in minerals. Rev Mineral Geochem 72:447–507

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Faure F, Schiano P (2005) Experimental investigation of equilibration conditions during forsterite growth and melt inclusion formation. Earth Planet Sci Lett 236:882–898

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frezzotti M-L (2001) Silicate-melt inclusions in magmatic rocks: applications to petrology. Lithos 55:273–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaetani GA, Watson EB (2000) Open-system behavior of olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 183:27–41

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaetani GA, O’Leary JA, Shimizu N, Bucholv CE, Newville M (2012) Rapid re-equilibration of H2O and oxygen fugacity in olivine-hosted inclusions. Geology (submitted)

  • Gonnermann HM, Manga M (2005) Nonequilibrium magma degassing: results from modeling of the ca. 1340 A.D. eruption of Mono Craters, California. Earth Planet Sci Lett 238(1-2):1–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grove TL, Parman SW, Bowring SA, Price R, Baker MB (2002) The role of a H2O-rich fluid component in the generation of primitive basaltic andesites and andesites from the Mt. Shasta region, N. California. Contrib Mineral Petrol 142:375–396

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hauri EH (2002) SIMS investigations of volatiles in volcanic glasses, 2: abundances and isotopes in Hawaiian melt inclusions. Chem Geol 183:115–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hauri EH, Weinreich T, Saal AE, Rutherford MC, Van Orman JA (2011) High pre-eruptive water contents preserved in lunar melt inclusions. Science 333:213–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Heydolph K, Hoernle K, van den Bogaard P, Hauff F (2012) Along- and across-arc geochemical variations in northwestern Central America: increased contribution of enriched mantle to volcanic front and rear-arc lavas from Nicaragua to Guatemala. Earth Planet Sci Lett (submitted)

  • Hirth G, Kohlstedt DL (1996) Water in the oceanic upper mantle: implications for rheology, melt extraction and the evolution of the lithosphere. Earth Planet Sci Lett 144:93–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hon K, Kauahikaua J, Denlinger R, McKay K (1994) Emplacement and inflation of pahoehoe sheet flows: observations and measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Geol Soc Am Bull 106:351–370

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hort M, Gardner J (2000) Constraints on cooling and degassing of pumice during Plinian volcanic eruptions based on model calculations. J Geophys Res 105(B11):25981–26001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Humphreys MCS, Menand T, Blundy JD, Klimm K (2008) Magma ascent rates in explosive eruptions: constraints from H2O diffusion in melt inclusions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 270(1–2):25–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson ER, Wallace PJ, Cashman KV, Delgado Granados H, Kent AJR (2008) Magmatic volatile contents and degassing-induced crystallization at Volcan Jorullo, Mexico: implications for melt evolution and the plumbing systems of monogenetic volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 269(3–4):478–487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Johnson ER, Wallace PJ, Cashman KV, Delgado Granados H (2010) Degassing of volatiles (H2O, CO2, S, Cl) during ascent, crystallization, and eruption of basaltic magmas in the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 197:225–238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jugo PJ, Wilke M, Botcharnikov RE (2010) Sulfur K-edge XANES analysis of natural and synthetic basaltic glasses: implications for S speciation and S content as function of oxygen fugacity. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 74:5926–5938

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelley KA, Cottrell E (2012) The influence of magmatic differentiation on the oxidation state of Fe in a basaltic arc magma. Earth Planet Sci Lett 329–330:109–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelley KA, Plank T, Ludden J, Staudigel H (2003) Composition of altered oceanic crust at ODP Sites 801 and 1149. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi:10.1029/2002GC000435

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelley KA, Plank T, Newman S, Stolper EM, Grove TL, Parman S, Hauri EH (2010) Mantle melting as a function of water content beneath the Mariana Arc. J Petrol 51:1711–1738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kent AJR (2008) Melt inclusions in basaltic and related Volcanic Rocks, Mineralogical Society of America. Rev Mineral Geochem 69:273–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Koga K, Hauri E, Hirschmann M, Bell D (2003) Hydrogen concentration analyses using SIMS and FTIR: comparison and calibration for nominally anhydrous minerals. Geochem Geophys Geosyst. doi:10.1029/2002GC000378

    Google Scholar 

  • Kohlstedt DL, Mackwell SJ (1998) Diffusion of hydrogen and intrinsic point defects in olivine. Z Phys Chem 207:147–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kohut E, Nielsen RL (2004) Melt inclusion formation mechanisms and compositional effects in high-An feldspar and high-Fo olivine in anhydrous mafic silicate liquids. Contrib Mineral Petrol 147:684–704

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kress VC, Carmichael ISE (1991) The compressibility of silicate liquids containing Fe2O3 and the effect of composition, temperature, oxygen fugacity and pressure on their redox states. Contrib Mineral Petrol 108:82–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Anderson AT, Wilson CJN (2007) Melt pockets in phenocrysts and decompression rates of silicic magmas before fragmentation. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2006JB004500

    Google Scholar 

  • Mackwell SJ, Kohlstedt DL (1990) Diffusion of hydrogen in olivine: implications for water in the mantle. J Geophys Res 95:5079–5088

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maclennan J, McKenzie D, Hilton F, Gronvöld K, Shimizu N (2003) Geochemical variability in a single flow from northern Iceland. J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2000JB000142

    Google Scholar 

  • Massare D, Metrich N, Clocchiatti R (2002) High-temperature experiments on silicate melt inclusions in olivine at 1 atm: inference on temperatures of homogenization and H2O concentrations. Chem Geol 183:87–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mercier M, Di Muroc A, Metrich N, Giordano D, Belhadja O, Mandeville CW (2010) Spectroscopic analysis (FTIR, Raman) of water in mafic and intermediate glasses and glass inclusions. Geochim Cosmochimica Acta 74(19):5641–5656

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Metrich N, Wallace PJ (2008) Volatile abundances in basaltic magmas and their degassing paths tracked by melt inclusions. Rev Mineral Geochem 69:273–331

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Metrich N, Allard P, Spilliaert N, Andronico D, Burton M (2004) 2001 flank eruption of the alkali- and volatile-rich primitive basalt responsible for Mount Etna’s evolution in last three decades. Earth Planet Sci Lett 228:1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Métrich N, Berry AJ, O’Neill HSC, Susini J (2009) The oxidation state of sulfur in synthetic and natural glasses determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Geochim Cosmochimica Acta 73:2382–2399

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newman S, Lowenstern JB (2002) Volatile-calc: a silicate melt-H2O-CO2 solution model written in Visual Basic for Excel. Comput Geosci 28:597–604

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Parman SW, Grove TL, Kelley KA, Plank T (2011) Along-arc variations in the pre-eruptive H2O contents of Mariana arc magmas inferred from fractionation paths. J Petrol 52:257–278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Portnyagin MV, Hoernle K, Plechov PY, Mironov NL, Khubunaya SA (2007) Constraints on mantle melting and composition and nature of slab components in volcanic arcs from volatiles (H2O, S, Cl, F) and trace elements in melt inclusions from the Kamchatka Arc. Earth Planet Sci Lett 255:53–69

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Portnyagin M, Almeev R, Matveev S, Holtz F (2008) Experimental evidence for rapid water exchange between melt inclusions in olivine and host magma. Earth Planet Sci Lett 272(3–4):541–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Qin Z, Lu F, Anderson AT (1992) Diffusive re-equilibration of melt and fluid inclusions. Am Mineral 77:565–576

    Google Scholar 

  • Recktenwald G (2006) Transient, one-dimensional heat conduction in a convectively cooled sphere, updated February 21, 2010, http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~gerry/epub/

  • Roedder E (1981) Origin of fluid inclusions and changes that occur after trapping. Fluid inclusions: application to petrology: Mineral Assoc Canada Short Course, Calgary 6:103–137

    Google Scholar 

  • Roggensack K (2001a) Unraveling the 1974 eruption of Fuego volcano (Guatemala) with small crystals and their young melt inclusions. Geology 29(10):911–914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roggensack K (2001b) Sizing up crystals and their melt inclusions: a new approach to crystallization studies. Earth Planet Sci Lett 187(1–2):221–237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rose WI, Anderson AT, Woodruff LG, Bonis SB (1978) October 1974 basaltic tephra from Fuego Volcano—description and history of magma body. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 4(1–2):3–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rose WI, Self S, Murrow PJ, Bonadonna C, Durant AJ, Ernst GJ (2008) Nature and significance of small volume fall deposits at composite volcanoes: insights from the October 14, 1974 Fuego eruption, Guatemala. B Volcanol 70:1043–1067

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ruprecht P, Plank T, Lloyd AS (2010) Melt inclusion re-equilibration with complex shapes. Eos Trans AGU 91(Fall Meet Suppl)

  • Sable JE, Houghton BF, Del Carlo P, Coltelli M (2006) Changing conditions of magma ascent and fragmentation during the Etna 122 BC basaltic Plinian eruption: evidence from clast microtextures. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 158:333–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sisson TW, Bronto S (1998) Evidence for pressure-release melting beneath magmatic arcs from basalt at Galunggung, Indonesia. Nature 391:883–886

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sisson TW, Layne GD (1993) H2O in basalt and basaltic andesite glass inclusions from 4 subduction related volcanos. Earth Planet Sci Lett 117(3–4):619–635

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spandler C, O’Neill HSC (2010) Diffusion and partition coefficients of minor and trace elements in San Carlos olivine at 1,300 C with some geochemical implications. Contrib Mineral Petrol 159:791–818

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spilliaert N, Allard P, Metrich N, Sobolev AV (2006) Melt inclusion record of the conditions of ascent, degassing, and extrusion of volatile-rich alkali basalt during the powerful 2002 flank eruption of Mount Etna (Italy). J Geophys Res. doi:10.1029/2005JB003934

    Google Scholar 

  • Stroberg TM, Manga M, Dufek J (2010) Heat transfer coefficients of natural volcanic clasts. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 194(4):214–219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Thomas RME, Sparks RSJ (1992) Cooling of tephra during fallout from eruption columns. B Volcanol 54:542–553

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Toplis MJ (2005) The thermodynamics of iron and magnesium partitioning between olivine and liquid: criteria for assessing and predicting equilibrium in natural and experimental systems. Contrib Mineral Petrol 149:22–39

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tsai TL, Dieckmann R (2002) Variation of the oxygen content and point defects in olivines, (FexMg1-x)2SiO4, 0.2 ≤ x ≤ 1.0. Phys Chem Minerals 29:680–694

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wade JA, Plank T, Melson WG, Soto GJ, Hauri EH (2006) The volatile content of magmas from Arenal volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 157:94–120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wade JA, Plank T, Hauri EH, Kelley KA, Roggensack K, Zimmer M (2008) Prediction of magmatic water contents via measurement of H2O in clinopyroxene phenocrysts. Geology 36:799–802

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wallace PJ (2005) Volatiles in subduction zone magmas: concentrations and fluxes based on melt inclusions and volcanic gas data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 140:217–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wallace PJ, Carmichael ISE (1994) S speciation in submarine basaltic glasses as determined by measurements of SKa X-ray wavelength shifts. Am Mineral 79:161–167

    Google Scholar 

  • Wallace PJ, Dufek J, Anderson AT, Zhang YX (2003) Cooling rates of Plinian-fall and pyroclastic-flow deposits in the Bishop Tuff: inferences from water speciation in quartz-hosted glass inclusions. B Volcanol 65(2–3):105–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witham F (2011) Conduit convection, magma mixing, and melt inclusion trends at persistently degassing volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 301:345–352

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witham F et al (2011) SolEx: a model for mixed COHSCl-volatile solubilities and exsolved gas compositions in basalt. Comput Geosci. doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2011.09.021

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright HMN, Cashman KV, Rosi M, Cioni R (2007) Breadcrust bombs as indicators of Vulcanian eruption dynamics at Guagua Pichincha volcano, Ecuador. B Volcanol 69(3):281–300

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zimmer MM, Plank T, Hauri EH, Yogodzinski GM, Stelling P, Larsen J, Singer B, Jicha B, Mandeville CW, Nye CJ (2010) The role of water in generating the calc-alkaline trend: new volatile data for Aleutian magmas and a new tholeiitic index. J Petrol 51:2411–2444

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the National Science Foundation grant EAR-09-48533 to ASL and TP and grant EAR-09-48478 to EHH. WR acknowledges NSF support for work on Fuego and nearby volcanoes since 1972, the most recent being PIRE 0530109. We appreciate the technical support of Charles Mandeville and Juliane Gross at the AMNH during the electron probe data collection, Louis Bolge during the LA-ICP-MS data collection, and Jianhua Wang at CIW during SIMS data collection. Constructive reviews from Maxim Portnyagin and Oliver Reubi improved the clarity of our arguments and data presentation. Finally, we want to acknowledge the editorial work of Jon Blundy and the Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology staff.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alexander S. Lloyd.

Additional information

Communicated by T. L. Grove.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (XLS 362 kb)

Supplementary material 2 (PDF 7437 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lloyd, A.S., Plank, T., Ruprecht, P. et al. Volatile loss from melt inclusions in pyroclasts of differing sizes. Contrib Mineral Petrol 165, 129–153 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-012-0800-2

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00410-012-0800-2

Keywords

Navigation