, Volume 196, Issue 3, pp 335–342 | Cite as

Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment and Overdistension During Four Levels of End-Expiratory Pressure with Protective Tidal Volume During Anesthesia in a Murine Lung-Healthy Model

  • Joao Henrique Neves Soares
  • Alysson Roncally Carvalho
  • Bruno Curty Bergamini
  • Maria Alice Kuster Gress
  • Frederico Caetano Jandre
  • Walter Araujo Zin
  • Antonio Giannella-Neto
Respiratory Mechanics



We compared respiratory mechanics between the positive end-expiratory pressure of minimal respiratory system elastance (PEEPminErs) and three levels of PEEP during low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) ventilation in rats.


Twenty-four rats were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. Airway pressure (Paw), flow (F), and volume (V) were fitted by a linear single compartment model (LSCM) Paw(t) = Ers × V(t) + Rrs × F(t) + PEEP or a volume- and flow-dependent SCM (VFDSCM) Paw(t) = (E1 + E2 × V(t)) × V(t) + (K1 + K2 × |F(t)|) × F(t) + PEEP, where Ers and Rrs are respiratory system elastance and resistance, respectively; E1 and E2× V are volume-independent and volume-dependent Ers, respectively; and K1 and K2 × F are flow-independent and flow-dependent Rrs, respectively. Animals were ventilated for 1 h at PEEP 0 cmH2O (ZEEP); PEEPminErs; 2 cmH2O above PEEPminErs (PEEPminErs+2); or 4 cmH2O above PEEPminErs (PEEPminErs+4). Alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension were assessed by the index %E2 = 100 × [(E2 × VT)/(E1 + |E2| × VT)], and alveolar stability by the slope of Ers(t).


%E2 varied between 0 and 30% at PEEPminErs in most respiratory cycles. Alveolar Tidal recruitment/derecruitment (%E2 < 0) and overdistension (%E2 > 30) were predominant in the absence of PEEP and in PEEP levels higher than PEEPminErs, respectively. The slope of Ers(t) was different from zero in all groups besides PEEPminErs+4.


PEEPminErs presented the best compromise between alveolar tidal recruitment/derecruitment and overdistension, during 1 h of low-VT mechanical ventilation.


Alveolar overdistention Tidal recruitment/derecruitment PEEP choice Protective ventilation Anesthesia 



This study was supported by grants from the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technology Development (CNPq)—140047/2008-5.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in this study were in compliance with the “Principles of Laboratory Animal Care” formulated by the National Society for Medical Research and the “Guiding Principles in the Care and Use of Animals” approved by the Council of the American Physiological Society, USA. The present study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (CEUA CCS, IBCCF-019).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joao Henrique Neves Soares
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alysson Roncally Carvalho
    • 1
    • 3
  • Bruno Curty Bergamini
    • 1
  • Maria Alice Kuster Gress
    • 4
  • Frederico Caetano Jandre
    • 1
  • Walter Araujo Zin
    • 3
  • Antonio Giannella-Neto
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Pulmonary Engineering, Biomedical Engineering Program/COPPEFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary MedicineVirginia TechBlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Laboratory of Respiration Physiology, Carlos Chagas Filho Institute of BiophysicsFederal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Laboratory of Animal Research, Veterinary SchoolFluminense Federal UniversityNiteroiBrazil

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