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Influence of Gender on Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Sarcoidosis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study 1976–2013

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The influence of ethnicity on epidemiology and clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis is well recognized. However, data on the role of sex are limited.


The current study utilized the resource of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, United States, with new diagnosis of sarcoidosis from 1976 to 2013. Diagnosis was verified by medical record and histopathological report review.


345 incident cases of sarcoidosis were identified: 174 (50 %) were female and 171 (50 %) were male. The age at diagnosis was significantly higher among females than males (48.3 vs. 42.8 years; p < 0.001). Intra-thoracic disease was seen in the great majority of patients (98 % among females and 96 % among males; p = 0.50). However, pulmonary symptoms were significantly more frequent among males than females (51 vs. 36 %; p = 0.006). The frequency of individual extra-thoracic organ involvement was not significantly different between females and males except for cutaneous involvement and uveitis that were significantly more common among females (6 vs. 1 % for uveitis, p = 0.012 and 25 vs. 12 % for cutaneous involvement, p = 0.002). The frequency of elevate angiotensin-converting enzyme level and hypercalcemia was not significantly different between the two sexes.


Females tended to be older at the age they developed sarcoidosis, and had more uveitis and cutaneous involvement than males.

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This study was made possible using the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, which is supported by the National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01AG034676, and CTSA Grant Number UL1 TR000135 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

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Correspondence to Patompong Ungprasert.

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We do not have any financial or non-financial potential conflicts of interest.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Ungprasert, P., Crowson, C.S. & Matteson, E.L. Influence of Gender on Epidemiology and Clinical Manifestations of Sarcoidosis: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study 1976–2013. Lung 195, 87–91 (2017).

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